Published online Nov 8, 2017. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v9.i31.1197
Peer-review started: August 27, 2017
First decision: September 15, 2017
Revised: September 17, 2017
Accepted: October 15, 2017
Article in press: October 15, 2017
Published online: November 8, 2017
Core tip: This review considers the modern concepts of pathogenesis, diagnostic methods, and treatment principles of hepatic hydrothorax (HH). The analysis of the data showed that despite the progress of modern hepatology, the presence of HH is associated with poor prognosis and high mortality. Most patients suffering from it are candidates for orthotopic liver transplantation. In routine clinical practice, stratification of the risk for an adverse outcome and the subsequent determination of individual therapeutic strategies may be the keys to the successful management of the patient’s condition. The development of pathogenetic pharmacotherapy and minimally invasive treatment will improve the quality of life and increase the survival rate among patients with HH.