Published online Sep 8, 2015. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v7.i19.2184
Peer-review started: May 29, 2015
First decision: June 18, 2015
Revised: July 8, 2015
Accepted: July 23, 2015
Article in press: July 27, 2015
Published online: September 8, 2015
Core tip: Previous findings in the context of obesity have pointed to the role of macrophages from the adipose tissue in the development of a chronic inflammatory status inducing insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, nowadays, the activation of liver macrophages called Kupffer cells (KC) and the recruitment of monocytes have been identified as key elements for disease initiation and progression towards steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. What are the possible reasons for this deleterious KC activation in NAFLD? Are our current therapeutic approaches in NAFLD targeting KC and how? Those two important questions are raised in this paper, supported by recent studies in the field.