Published online Jan 27, 2018. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v10.i1.1
Peer-review started: November 9, 2017
First decision: December 4, 2017
Revised: December 21, 2017
Accepted: January 15, 2018
Article in press: January 15, 2018
Published online: January 27, 2018
Core tip: Inflammasomes are newly recognized vital players in innate immunity. Several factors have been identified able to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome. Inappropriate activation of NLRP3 can contribute to the onset and progression of various diseases, particularly age-related diseases. It is well established that hepatitis C virus infection plays a critical role in the promotion of liver inflammation and disease, inducing the production of IL-1β and the activation of NLRP3. NLRP3 inflammasome gain of function aggravates liver disease, resulting in severe liver fibrosis and lately, hepatocellular carcinoma. In non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, the regulation of inflammation processes may prevent the progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis to fibrosis.