Retrospective Study
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2022. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Hepatol. Sep 27, 2022; 14(9): 1767-1777
Published online Sep 27, 2022. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v14.i9.1767
Decrease in liver cancer incidence rates in Bamako, Mali over 28 years of population-based cancer registration (1987-2015)
Amina Amadou, Dominique Sighoko, Bourama Coulibaly, Cheick Traoré, Bakarou Kamaté, Brahima S Mallé, Maëlle de Seze, Francine N Kemayou Yoghoum, Sandrine Biyogo Bi Eyang, Denis Bourgeois, Maria Paula Curado, Siné Bayo, Emmanuelle Gormally, Pierre Hainaut
Amina Amadou, Institute for Advanced Biosciences, Grenoble 38700, France
Amina Amadou, Department of Prevention Cancer Environment, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon 69008, France
Dominique Sighoko, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60611, United States
Bourama Coulibaly, Cheick Traoré, Bakarou Kamaté, Brahima S Mallé, Francine N Kemayou Yoghoum, Sandrine Biyogo Bi Eyang, Siné Bayo, Department of Pathological Anatomy and Cytology, University Hospital of Point G, Bamako BP333, Mali
Maëlle de Seze, Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, Paris 75005, France
Denis Bourgeois, Health, Systemic, Process, UR 4129 Research Unit, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Villeurbanne 69100, France
Maria Paula Curado, Epidemiology and Statistics Nucleus, ACCamargo Cancer Center, Sao Paulo 01508-010, Brazil
Emmanuelle Gormally, Sciences and Humanities Confluence Research Center, Université Catholique de Lyon, Lyon 69288, France
Pierre Hainaut, Institut pour l’Avancée des Biosciences, Grenoble 38700, France
Author contributions: Amadou A, Sighoko D, Hainaut P, and Gormally E designed the study, analyzed the data, and wrote the manuscript; Coulibaly B, Traoré C, Kamaté B, Mallé BS, Kemayou Yoghoum FN, Biyogo Bi Eyang S, and Bayo S contributed to the collection of the data; de Seze M, Bourgeois D, and Curado MP analyzed the data; and all authors have read and approved the manuscript.
Institutional review board statement: On behalf of the ministry of health, the regional cancer registry for Bamako district was used to support cancer surveillance activities. It is an official authoritative source of information on cancer incidence and survival in Mali. Relevant policies, regulations, and laws are strictly implemented to guide the handling of information in cancer registries. These procedures protect the confidentiality and privacy of both cancer patients and healthcare professionals. After declassifying the patient information, with no identifiers for cancer patients, the regional cancer registry provides access to the data for researchers in the form of databases.
Informed consent statement: The informed consent was waived.
Conflict-of-interest statement: All the authors report no relevant conflicts of interest for this article.
Data sharing statement: Data from the cancer registry of Bamako, Mali are available on demand from the cancer registry.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Corresponding author: Emmanuelle Gormally, DPhil, Professor, Sciences and Humanities Confluence Research Center, Université Catholique de Lyon, 10 place des Archives, Lyon 69288, France.
Received: July 21, 2021
Peer-review started: July 21, 2021
First decision: November 16, 2021
Revised: December 20, 2021
Accepted: September 13, 2022
Article in press: September 13, 2022
Published online: September 27, 2022
Research background

There is evidence that trends in the incidence of liver cancer in different parts of the world are undergoing contrasting changes.

Research motivation

There is very little data on liver cancer incidence trends in sub-Saharan Africa.

Research objectives

Using the cancer registry of the Bamako district, Mali, we have studied incidence trends of liver cancer over 28 years (from 1987 to 2015) by sex.

Research methods

Age-standardized rates were estimated using a direct standardization method by considering the world population. The incidence rate ratio and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated using the early period as reference (1987-1996). The average annual percent change of the trends was evaluated from Joinpoint regression models.

Research results

Overall, the age-standardized incidence of liver cancer varied substantially across the three periods of the study. There was a significant decrease of liver cancer incidence over the study period in males and females.

Research conclusions

This study showed a decrease in the registration of primary liver cancer in an urban population of West Africa between 1987 and 2015. Lifestyle changes and diversification of diet may have led to a decrease in exposure to aflatoxin-contaminated products.

Research perspectives

Future studies are warranted to explore the potential reasons for this decrease in order to better understand the specific etiological factors of liver cancer in West Africa.