Published online May 8, 2016. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v8.i13.573
Peer-review started: June 19, 2015
First decision: August 10, 2015
Revised: April 1, 2016
Accepted: April 14, 2016
Article in press: April 18, 2016
Published online: May 8, 2016
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer. The main risk factors for HCC are alcoholism, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, obesity, type 2 diabetes, cirrhosis, aflatoxin, hemochromatosis, Wilson’s disease and hemophilia. Occupational exposure to chemicals is another risk factor for HCC. Often the relationship between occupational risk and HCC is unclear and the reports are fragmented and inconsistent. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge regarding the association of infective and non-infective occupational risk exposure and HCC in order to encourage further research and draw attention to this global occupational public health problem.
Core tip: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common human cancer. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding the occupational risk factors of HCC. In particular, we underline not only the infective but also non-infective occupational risk exposure, including chemical agents and toxic metabolites which are a major cause of liver damage.