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Copyright ©The Author(s) 2020. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Stem Cells. Sep 26, 2020; 12(9): 897-921
Published online Sep 26, 2020. doi: 10.4252/wjsc.v12.i9.897
Dental stem cells: The role of biomaterials and scaffolds in developing novel therapeutic strategies
Cornelia Larissa Granz, Ali Gorji
Cornelia Larissa Granz, Ali Gorji, Epilepsy Research Center, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Münster 48149, Germany
Ali Gorji, Department of Neurosurgery and Department of Neurology, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität, Münster 48149, Germany
Ali Gorji, Shefa Neuroscience Research Center, Khatam Alanbia Hospital, Tehran 1996836111, Iran
Ali Gorji, Neuroscience Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad 9177948564, Iran
Author contributions: Granz CL and Gorji A contributed to the conception and design of the study; Granz CL contributed to writing and drafting of the manuscript; Gorji A contributed to critical revision of the final draft of the manuscript; all authors approved the final version of the manuscript.
Conflict-of-interest statement: There is no conflict of interest.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Corresponding author: Ali Gorji, MD, Full Professor, Epilepsy Research Center, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Domagkstr 11, Münster 48149, Germany. gorjial@uni-muenster.de
Received: May 4, 2020
Peer-review started: May 4, 2020
First decision: May 24, 2020
Revised: June 5, 2020
Accepted: August 16, 2020
Article in press: August 16, 2020
Published online: September 26, 2020
Abstract

Dental stem cells (DSCs) are self-renewable cells that can be obtained easily from dental tissues, and are a desirable source of autologous stem cells. The use of DSCs for stem cell transplantation therapeutic approaches is attractive due to their simple isolation, high plasticity, immunomodulatory properties, and multipotential abilities. Using appropriate scaffolds loaded with favorable biomolecules, such as growth factors, and cytokines, can improve the proliferation, differentiation, migration, and functional capacity of DSCs and can optimize the cellular morphology to build tissue constructs for specific purposes. An enormous variety of scaffolds have been used for tissue engineering with DSCs. Of these, the scaffolds that particularly mimic tissue-specific micromilieu and loaded with biomolecules favorably regulate angiogenesis, cell-matrix interactions, degradation of extracellular matrix, organized matrix formation, and the mineralization abilities of DSCs in both in vitro and in vivo conditions. DSCs represent a promising cell source for tissue engineering, especially for tooth, bone, and neural tissue restoration. The purpose of the present review is to summarize the current developments in the major scaffolding approaches as crucial guidelines for tissue engineering using DSCs and compare their effects in tissue and organ regeneration.

Keywords: Cell transplantation, Regenerative medicine, Tissue engineering, Neural crest, Angiogenesis, Biomolecules

Core Tip: Dental stem cells have been used for different types of cell transplantation therapies, including teeth, bone, and neural tissue regeneration. In planning for successful tissue engineering toward organ-specific regeneration, choosing an appropriate scaffold that mimics the extracellular matrix in native tissue and loaded with suitable biomolecules to boost dental stem cell functions is of utmost importance.