Published online Jul 26, 2020. doi: 10.4252/wjsc.v12.i7.585
Peer-review started: December 31, 2019
First decision: April 2, 2020
Revised: May 27, 2020
Accepted: May 29, 2020
Article in press: May 29, 2020
Published online: July 26, 2020
Stem cells play a key role in tissue regeneration due to their self-renewal and multidirectional differentiation, which are continuously regulated by signals from the extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment. Therefore, the unique biological and physical characteristics of the ECM are important determinants of stem cell behavior. Although the acellular ECM of specific tissues and organs (such as the skin, heart, cartilage, and lung) can mimic the natural microenvironment required for stem cell differentiation, the lack of donor sources restricts their development. With the rapid development of adipose tissue engineering, decellularized adipose matrix (DAM) has attracted much attention due to its wide range of sources and good regeneration capacity. Protocols for DAM preparation involve various physical, chemical, and biological methods. Different combinations of these methods may have different impacts on the structure and composition of DAM, which in turn interfere with the growth and differentiation of stem cells. This is a narrative review about DAM. We summarize the methods for decellularizing and sterilizing adipose tissue, and the impact of these methods on the biological and physical properties of DAM. In addition, we also analyze the application of different forms of DAM with or without stem cells in tissue regeneration (such as adipose tissue), repair (such as wounds, cartilage, bone, and nerves), in vitro bionic systems, clinical trials, and other disease research.
Core tip: Decellularized adipose matrix (DAM) is widely used in soft tissue regeneration because it has unique biological and physical properties and can provide a natural microenvironment for the growth and differentiation of stem cells. There have been many studies on DAM, and our objective is to comprehensively describe the preparation, characterization and application of DAM from the perspective of stem cells. We also describe the problems that still need to be solved in DAM research and possible future developments.