Copyright ©The Author(s) 2021.
World J Gastroenterol. May 28, 2021; 27(20): 2495-2506
Published online May 28, 2021. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i20.2495
Table 1 Risk factors for post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis related to the operator and the procedure
Operator related
Factors related to the procedure
Inadequate trainingExtended procedure time (≥ 30 min)
Lack of experience Difficult cannulation (≥ 15 min)
Patient-related risk factorsInjection of contrast into the pancreatic duct
Young ageSphincter of Oddi manometry
WomenPancreatic sphincterotomy
Normal serum bilirubinSmall papillary sphincterotomy
Recurrent pancreatitisBiliary balloon sphincteroplasty
Previous ERCP-induced pancreatitisEndoscopic papillectomy with loop
Sphincter of Oddi dysfunctionPancreatic intraductal ultrasound
Precut sphincterotomy