Published online May 28, 2021. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i20.2495
Peer-review started: December 10, 2020
First decision: January 27, 2021
Revised: January 30, 2021
Accepted: March 18, 2021
Article in press: March 18, 2021
Published online: May 28, 2021
Acute post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis (PEP) is a feared and potentially fatal complication that can be as high as up to 30% in high-risk patients. Pre-examination measures, during the examination and after the examination are the key to technical and clinical success with a decrease in adverse events. Several studies have debated on the subject, however, numerous topics remain controversial, such as the effectiveness of prophylactic medications and the amylase dosage time. This review was designed to provide an update on the current scientific evidence regarding PEP available in the literature.
Core Tip: Acute post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis (PEP) is a feared and potentially fatal complication. Early diagnosis remains the key to the clinical success of these patients. Unfortunately, several topics remain controversial, especially early diagnosis with hyperamylasemia still being mistaken for PEP. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate the evidence in the current literature on PEP.