Topic Highlight
Copyright ©2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc.
World J Gastroenterol. May 28, 2014; 20(20): 5935-5950
Published online May 28, 2014. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i20.5935
Table 1 Risk factors predicting hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence after non-surgical treatments
TreatmentRisk factorsRef.
Percutaneous ethanol injectionTumor size > 2-3 cm[17,21-23]
Peritumoral capsule[17,24]
Percutaneous radiofrequency ablationTumor size > 2-3 cm[31,33]
Position of nodule near large vessels or diaphragm[31]
Transarterial chemoembolizationMultifocality[39,40]
Partial necrosis[44]
Age > 60[39]
Pattern of lipiodol accumulation (partial or heterogeneous)[41,42]
Table 2 Risk factors predicting hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence after surgical treatments
TreatmentRecurrenceRisk factorsRef.
Liver resectionEarlyTumor size ≥ 5 cm[50,51]
High histological grade (G4)[58-61]
Microvascular invasion[53]
Resection technique[67-70]
Genetic profile[123]
LateStage of liver disease[46,51]
Gender (male)[65]
AST > × 2 normal values[65]
Genetic profile[124]
Orthotopic liver transplantMilan criteria[77]
Vascular invasion[78]
Bilobar nodules[81]
Tumor grade[83]
Tumor size > 5 cm[80]
Total number of lesions[82]
Table 3 Morphological characteristics predicting hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence by means of imaging techniques
Imaging techniquePredictors of HCC recurrenceRef.
USPoorly defined margins[33]
Infiltrative pattern[20,33]
Portal infiltration[20,33]
Peripheral hypoechoic band[20,33]
Heterogeneous echo pattern[20]
Contrast enhancement pattern[32,125]
CT scanHeterogeneous enhancement pattern[126,128]
MRIContrast washout pattern at dynamic MRI[63]
Signal pattern on hepatobiliary phase[132]
18F-FDG PETMaximum SUV by tumor[129]
Tumor SUV/non-tumoral tissue SUV ratio[130]