Copyright ©The Author(s) 2017.
World J Gastroenterol. Jun 14, 2017; 23(22): 3978-3998
Published online Jun 14, 2017. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v23.i22.3978
Table 1 Etiological factors for gallbladder cancer pathogenesis
Major Independent Etiological factorsDependent Etiological factors
Age[6]Tobacco consumption[15]
Sex[6], BMI[16]Mustard oil[17] Argemone oil (AO) and butter yellow (BY)[18]
Family history[7,19]Early age at first pregnancy[20]
Cholelithiasis[6,22-24]Use of Oral contraceptives[15,25,26]
Chronic cholecystitis, porcelain gallbladder[27,28]Red Chili pepper[29,30]
Chronic infection by Salmonella species, S. paratyphi or S. typhican[6,10,31-34]Occupational exposure, Benzene[17,35]
Helocobacter pylori[36,37]Secondary bile acids[13,38-40]
High parity[20,21,24,26]Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis[41]
Anomalous pancreatobiliary duct junction[42,43]Heavy metals[44,45]
Porcelain gallbladder[46]Genetic factors[48]
Gallbladder polyp[47]
Obesity[49]Free radical oxidation products[50]