Copyright ©The Author(s) 2017. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Gastroenterol. Jun 14, 2017; 23(22): 3978-3998
Published online Jun 14, 2017. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v23.i22.3978
Gallbladder cancer epidemiology, pathogenesis and molecular genetics: Recent update
Aarti Sharma, Kiran Lata Sharma, Annapurna Gupta, Alka Yadav, Ashok Kumar
Aarti Sharma, Annapurna Gupta, Alka Yadav, Ashok Kumar, Department of Surgical Gastroenterology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow 226014, India
Kiran Lata Sharma, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, John Buhler Research Centre, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg MB R3E 3P4, Canada
Author contributions: Sharma A, Sharma KL and Kumar A have written the manuscript; Sharma A, Sharma KL and Gupta A has contributed in literature search; Sharma A, Sharma KL, Gupta A and Yadav A have contributed in designing tables as well as referencing; Kumar A is senior Corresponding author; Sharma KL is co-corresponding author; all the authors have approved the final version of the manuscript.
Conflict-of-interest statement: We declare that we have no conflict of interest.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Correspondence to: Dr. Ashok Kumar, Professor, Department of Surgical Gastroenterology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Raebareli Road, Lucknow 226014, India.
Telephone: +91-522-2494423 Fax: +91-522-2668017
Received: December 24, 2016
Peer-review started: December 29, 2016
First decision: January 19, 2017
Revised: February 1, 2017
Accepted: June 1, 2017
Article in press: June 1, 2017
Published online: June 14, 2017

Gallbladder cancer is a malignancy of biliary tract which is infrequent in developed countries but common in some specific geographical regions of developing countries. Late diagnosis and deprived prognosis are major problems for treatment of gallbladder carcinoma. The dramatic associations of this orphan cancer with various genetic and environmental factors are responsible for its poorly defined pathogenesis. An understanding to the relationship between epidemiology, molecular genetics and pathogenesis of gallbladder cancer can add new insights to its undetermined pathophysiology. Present review article provides a recent update regarding epidemiology, pathogenesis, and molecular genetics of gallbladder cancer. We systematically reviewed published literature on gallbladder cancer from online search engine PubMed ( Various keywords used for retrieval of articles were Gallbladder, cancer Epidemiology, molecular genetics and bullion operators like AND, OR, NOT. Cross references were manually searched from various online search engines (,, Most of the articles published from 1982 to 2015 in peer reviewed journals have been included in this review.

Keywords: Gallbladder cancer, Epidemiology, Molecular genetics, Pathogenesis

Core tip: The Gallbladder cancer is a fatal malignancy which displays considerable differences in certain ethnicities and geographic regions. Indo-Gangetic plains of India, Mapuche Indians in Chile and South America are most affected regions with this cancer. Because of this cancer is largely unstudied as compare to other cancers Present review provides a comprehensive summery of the studies conducted regarding its Epidemiology, Pathogenesis and molecular genetics. This will be helpful for the researchers to understand the current scenario of research work and how much success we have gained till now. Based on which future research work can be planned in appropriate directions.