Copyright ©The Author(s) 2015.
World J Gastroenterol. Oct 7, 2015; 21(37): 10621-10635
Published online Oct 7, 2015. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i37.10621
Table 2 Important human studies assessing effect of foods on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
FoodRef.Sample (n)Study typeInterventionDurationOutcomes
Oily Fish/ Fish oil (n-3 PUFAs)Parker et al[14]355Meta-analysis4 g/d (median); range 0.83-13.7 g/d6 mo (median); range 8 wk-12 moImprovement in liver fat (P < 0.001); AST (P = 0.02)
Sub-analyses of RCTs only: Significant reduction in liver fat (P < 0.001); No significant improvement in ALT (P = 0.74) or AST (P = 0.28)
CoffeeMolloy et al[50]306Cross-sectionalValidated questionnaire for coffee caffeine and total caffeine consumptionRecallCoffee caffeine intake (but not total caffeine intake) demonstrated negative correlation with fibrosis stage (r = -0.215, P = 0.035) and associated with reduced incidence advanced NASH (F2-4).
NAFLD cases - liver biopsy
NutsBarrera et al[3]106 17LongitudinalWalnut and other nut intake assessed6 moWalnut intake correlated with reduced GGT (r = -0.26), ALT (r = -0.31) and AST (r = -0.21, P < 0.05 for all) at 3 months. At 6 months intake of other nuts was associated with reduced GGT (r = -0.23, P = 0.03), while both walnuts and other nut intake correlated to reduced AST (r = -0.22, P < 0.05)
TeaSakata et al[85]Pilot RCTGreen tea; High catechin (1080 mg) vs standard catechin (200 mg) vs placebo12 wkSignificant reductions in ALT, body fat percentage and hepatic fat based on CT in high catechin green tea group alone
AvocadoPahua-Ramos et al[120]35Group 1: Control7 wkAddition of avocado paste to high cholesterol/fructose diet (HFF) was associated with decreased total cholesterol, LDL, TG, ALT and AST (43.1%, 45.4%, 32.8%, 39.8% and 35.1% respectively; P ≤ 0.05) and improved insulin sensitivity compared to HFF diet alone
Group 2: ↑ cholesterol diet + 60% Fructose (HHF)
Group 3: HHF + Avocado
Group 4: HHF + reduced-calorie avocado paste (P)
Group 5: HHF + P + fiberHHF + avocado paste and fiber vs HHF associated with reduced hepatic steatosis and inflammation, reduced total cholesterol, AST, ALT,LDL and glucose levels (P ≤ 0.05 for all)
Olive oilNigam et al[133]93Randomised controlled parallel studyOlive oil vs canola oil vs control (< 20 g/d) with normal diet and 40-45 min morning walk advised for all groups6 moWeight loss: -6% (olive oil, P < 0.05) 2% (control, NS)
Histology: significant reduction in steatosis grading (P < 0.05)
Other: significant reduction in BMI (P < 0.05) and insulin resistance (P < 0.05)