Copyright ©2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc.
World J Gastroenterol. Dec 21, 2014; 20(47): 17756-17772
Published online Dec 21, 2014. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i47.17756
Figure 3
Figure 3 Molecular mechanisms of alcoholic fibrosis. Acetaldehyde causes increased synthesis of collagen and extracellular matrix (ECM) components through the activation of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/SMAD3 signaling pathway. The microsomal metabolism of ethanol leads to protein adduct formation that upregulates collagen synthesis. MDA: Malondialdehyde; OPN: Osteopontin; LPS: Lipopolysaccharide; TNF-α: Tumor necrosis factor-α; MMP: Metalloproteinase; HNE: Hydroxynonenal; AP-1: Activator protein-1; SP-1: Specificity protein-1.