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Copyright ©2013 Baishideng Publishing Group Co.
World J Gastroenterol. Dec 21, 2013; 19(47): 8831-8849
Published online Dec 21, 2013. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i47.8831
Table 1 Involvement of galectins in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma
Galectin memberExpressionFunction and/or effectModelRef.
Galectin-1Up-regulated (mRNA and protein) in HCC, secreted by tumor hepatocytes and accumulated in stroma surrounding HCCCorrelates with tumor aggressiveness, metastases and enhanced risk of post-operative recurrenceHuman HCC tissues[79-82]
Favors HCC cell adhesion to ECM, cell migration and invasionHuman HCC cell lines[81,85]
Increases tumor growth and metastasis in draining-tumor lymph nodesNude mice injected with galectin-1 over-expressing HepG2 cells[85]
Possible role in the suppression of antitumor immune responsesHuman HCC tissues[82]
Galectin-3Up-regulated (mRNA and protein) in HCC. Transactivation of murine LGALS3 promoter can occur by HBV-X protein.Human HCC tissues and cell lines[79,124,125]
High nuclear expressionCorrelates with histological differentiation and vascular invasionHuman HCC tissues[126]
Up-regulated in HCC-associated capillary endothelial cellsProbably promotes angiogenesisTumor-associated endothelial cells isolated from rats[128]
Galectin-4Higher expression in HCC than normal tissuesHuman HCC tissues and cell lines[154]
Galectin-8Diminished expression in hepatoblastoma and hepatocarcinomaHuman HCC tissues[159]
Galectin-9Downregulated in HCCGalectin-9 suppression promotes cell proliferation and adhesion to ECM, tumor cell-endothelial cell adhesion and trans-endothelial invasion of HepG2 cells.Human cell lines[181]
Downregulation of galectin-9 represents a risk factor for patient survival, correlates with tumor histopathological grade, vascular invasion and metastasisHuman HCC tissues[181]