Copyright ©The Author(s) 2016.
World J Gastroenterol. Aug 28, 2016; 22(32): 7203-7214
Published online Aug 28, 2016. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v22.i32.7203
Figure 1
Figure 1 Canonical Wnt signaling pathway (reproduced with permission from[95]). the WNT pathway consist of two states, one referred to as “off” state where the small lipid modified Wnt protein does not bind to frizzled receptors (A), the other refereed as to “on state” when Wnt binds to frizzled (B). In the off state a large destruction complex is formed by the APC, Axin and GSk3β proteins. This complex binds to free β-catenin, phosphorylates it, thus triggering its degradation and preventing it from entering the nucleus. In the on-state dishevelled is activated, inhibits the formation of the destruction complex and leads to an abundance of cytoplasmic β-catenin, some of which enters the nucleus, binds with TCF, leading to cell proliferation.
Figure 2
Figure 2 Novel method by Fernández-Sánchez et al[5] to deliver a defined mechanical pressure in vivo (reproduced with permission from[5]). A: Strain maps of non-magnetized (left) and magnetized (right) colon crypt injected with ultra-magnetic liposomes; B: Top: immunefluorescence of Myc expression in APC deficient crypts 1 mo after the ULM injection, in control (left), non-magnetized (middle) and magnetized (left) tissues; Bottom: β-catenin Y654 phosphorylation after 15 d under UML in control (left), non-magnetized (middle) and magnetized (left) tissues.