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Copyright ©2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Co.
World J Gastroenterol. Jan 21, 2014; 20(3): 639-646
Published online Jan 21, 2014. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i3.639
Figure 1
Figure 1 Main functions of ghrelin in the human body. INF: Interferon; IL: Interleukin; PGE2: Prostaglandin E2; Th1: T helper 1; APC: Antigen presenting cell.
Figure 2
Figure 2 Downregulation of ghrelin expression in the stomach during Helicobacter pylori infection. Epithelial damage and gastritis induced by Helicobacter pylori determine a diminished expression of ghrelin which, in turn, sustains the ongoing T helper (Th) 1 cells response. Down regulation of ghrelin is also followed by a reduced release of Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and interleukin (IL)-10 which, together with pro-inflammatory factors as IL-1β, contribute to the detrimental immune response and damage in the stomach. APC: Antigen presenting cell.