Published online Dec 21, 2018. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v24.i47.5297
Peer-review started: October 19, 2018
First decision: November 22, 2018
Revised: November 27, 2018
Accepted: November 30, 2018
Article in press: November 30, 2018
Published online: December 21, 2018
Core tip: Inflammatory responses triggered by hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection lead to severe progressive liver diseases. Some inflammatory cytokines and chemokines may serve as biomarkers for the disease progression and therapeutic effect in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. The inflammatory pathogenesis in HCV-infected patients is complicated, including classic pathogen pattern recognition, inflammasome activation, intrahepatic inflammatory cascade response, and oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are not sufficient to block the uncontrolled inflammation and disease progression in severe CHC patients. Therefore, coupling with anti-inflammatory/hepatoprotective agents with anti-HCV effects is a promising therapeutic regimen for advanced HCV-infected patients during or after treatment with DAAs.