Published online Jan 7, 2016. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v22.i1.427
Peer-review started: September 1, 2015
First decision: September 29, 2015
Revised: October 18, 2015
Accepted: November 13, 2015
Article in press: November 13, 2015
Published online: January 7, 2016
Core tip: Liver transplantation results in two to five-fold mean increase in the rate of solid organ cancers. In this paper, we review the results of studies assessing the incidence of non-skin solid tumors in post-liver transplant patients to understand the mechanisms underlying solid cancers in these patients, and discuss how to prevent these cancers. Risk of smoking and viral-related malignancies is high, but recent data also implicate the role of calcineurin inhibitors, whose cumulative and dose-dependent effects on cell metabolism might play a direct role in oncogenesis.