Published online Jan 7, 2016. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v22.i1.165
Peer-review started: May 20, 2015
First decision: August 26, 2015
Revised: November 11, 2015
Accepted: December 14, 2015
Article in press: December 14, 2015
Published online: January 7, 2016
Core tip: Combination therapy consisting of high-dose hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and lamivudine has been the standard prophylaxis for hepatitis B virus recurrence after liver transplantation. Currently, after development of more potent high genetic barrier nucleos(t)ide analogues (hgbNAs), such as entecavir and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, combination therapy using low-dose HBIG and hgbNA is considered as the most efficacious and cost-effective prophylaxis. In addition, monotherapy with hgbNAs and withdrawal of HBIG following combination therapy of HBIG and hgbNAs could be promising approaches, especially for low-risk patients and those receiving grafts from hepatitis B core antibody-positive donors. This review discusses those approaches including other challenging therapeutic options.