Published online Nov 21, 2015. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i43.12274
Peer-review started: April 24, 2015
First decision: July 20, 2015
Revised: August 4, 2015
Accepted: October 23, 2015
Article in press: October 26, 2015
Published online: November 21, 2015
Core tip: Idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) predominantly includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease. The pathogenesis of IBD is complex and not completely understood. MicroRNAs belong to a class of noncoding small RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. Unique microRNA expression profiles have been explored in IBD. In this review, we focus on the unique microRNA expression pattern in both tissue and peripheral blood from IBD patients and emphasize the potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The discovery of microRNAs has contributed to our understanding of IBD pathogenesis and might lead to clinical advance in new therapeutics.