Published online Mar 21, 2015. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i11.3367
Peer-review started: October 14, 2014
First decision: November 14, 2014
Revised: November 24, 2014
Accepted: January 16, 2015
Article in press: January 16, 2015
Published online: March 21, 2015
Core tip: Strongyloides affects millions of people worldwide. Large numbers of infected hosts are asymptomatic or have non-specific gastrointestinal and/or pulmonary symptoms. Infected hosts, especially in the setting of human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 infection and immunosuppressant or steroid use, may develop overwhelming infection in the form of dissemination or hyperinfection. Peripheral eosinophilia may be the only non-specific finding. Diagnostic methods range from simple stool examination to serologic tests and molecular techniques based on nucleic acid amplification. Endoscopic examination may be needed which may provide evidence of infection on pathological exam. Treatment options are both safe and efficacious with oral Ivermectin being superior to Albendazole.