Published online Mar 21, 2015. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i11.3239
Peer-review started: July 8, 2014
First decision: September 15, 2014
Revised: October 23, 2014
Accepted: December 16, 2014
Article in press: December 16, 2014
Published online: March 21, 2015
Core tip: In this study, we found that urotensin-II (UII) increased before tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β following lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine challenge. Furthermore, pretreatment with urantide, an inhibitor of the UII receptor, blocked TNF-α and IL-1β increases following downregulation of UII in liver and blood at different time points after challenge. Therefore, UII may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and priming of acute liver failure by triggering the inflammatory cascade, and initiating and driving the early release of TNF-α and IL-1β in lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine-challenged mice.