Published online Aug 7, 2014. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i29.9882
Revised: February 21, 2014
Accepted: April 21, 2014
Published online: August 7, 2014
Core tip:Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a Gram-negative bacterium, colonizes the gastric mucosa of at least half of the human population and possesses a unique lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure. According to recent studies, this structure contributes to the immunomodulatory properties of LPS. The structural rearrangements of H. pylori LPS, especially in relation to the lipid A and O side chains, result in a unique pattern of interactions between the bacterium and the host. In this review, we report and discuss the actual findings underlying the LPS-driven “persistence mechanisms” of H. pylori, explaining how structural modifications may allow these bacteria to “live in peace” within a human host.