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World J Gastroenterol. May 28, 2014; 20(20): 6102-6112
Published online May 28, 2014. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i20.6102
Targeted therapy in advanced metastatic colorectal cancer: Current concepts and perspectives
Florian Hohla, Thomas Winder, Richard Greil, Ferenc G Rick, Norman L Block, Andrew V Schally
Florian Hohla, Richard Greil, IIIrd Medical Department with Hematology, Medical Oncology, Hemostasis, Rheumatology and Infectious Diseases, Oncologic Center, Center for Clinical Cancer and Immunology Trials, Laboratory of Immunological and Molecular Cancer Research, Paracelsus Medical University of Salzburg, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria
Thomas Winder, Department of Oncology, Medical University of Zurich, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
Ferenc G Rick, Norman L Block, Andrew V Schally, Endocrine, Polypeptide and Cancer Institute, Veterans Affairs Medical Center and South Florida Veterans Affairs Foundation for Research and Education, Miami, FL 33125, United States
Ferenc G Rick, Department of Urology, Florida International University, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Miami, FL 33199, United States
Norman L Block, Andrew V Schally, Divisions of Hematology/Oncology and Endocrinology, Department of Pathology and Department of Medicine, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33136, United States
Author contributions: Hohla F, Winder T, Greil R, Rick FG, Block NL and Schally AV wrote the paper; Block NL and Schally AV revised the paper and gave final approval of the version to be published.
Correspondence to: Florian Hohla, MD, IIIrd Medical Department with Hematology, Medical Oncology, Hemostasis, Rheumatology and Infectious Diseases, Oncologic Center, Center for Clinical Cancer and Immunology Trials, Laboratory of Immunological and Molecular Cancer Research, Paracelsus Medical University of Salzburg, Müllner Hauptstrasse 48, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria. f.hohla@salk.at
Telephone: +43-662-448258743 Fax: +43-662-44824103
Received: October 7, 2013
Revised: February 20, 2014
Accepted: March 12, 2014
Published online: May 28, 2014
Core Tip

Core tip: Our review evaluates the most recent clinical data on therapeutic reagents designed to target the vascular endothelial growth factor and epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathways in colorectal cancer. As colorectal cancers express receptors for bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide, growth hormone-releasing hormone, somatostatin as well as luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, we review the implications of these pathways in the growth of colorectal cancers and summarize experimental data and clinical studies performed to date with regard to the antiproliferative action of antagonistic peptide analogs of these receptors as well as their cytotoxic analogs and their status as drug candidates for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer.