Published online Dec 21, 2013. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i47.8887
Revised: October 26, 2013
Accepted: November 12, 2013
Published online: December 21, 2013
Core tip: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), with the majority of cases associated with infection from hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV), is the most common primary liver tumor. We introduced risk factors and risk predictive scores associated with HCC development among chronic HBV and HCV infection for its early diagnose and prevention. Vaccination plays a central role in the prevention of HBV-related HCC. Treatment of chronic HBV infection, especially by nucleoside analogue therapy, could reduce the risk of HBV-related HCC. Pegylated interferon and ribavirin could reduce the risk of HCV-related HCC. Chemopreventive agents in reducing HBV- and HCV-related HCC were also discussed.