Published online Nov 28, 2020. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v26.i44.6979
Peer-review started: August 11, 2020
First decision: October 18, 2020
Revised: October 28, 2020
Accepted: November 13, 2020
Article in press: November 13, 2020
Published online: November 28, 2020
The incidence of gallbladder polyps (GBPs) has been increasing in recent years. Because some GBPs have malignant potential and the prognosis of advanced gallbladder cancer is poor, it is important to detect GBPs before they reach advanced stages. Abnormal body fat distribution has received a lot of attention in clinical practice as possible risk factor for various adult diseases.
Considering the importance of early detection of GBP, determination of risk factors for GBP might have clinical significance. Although some studies have investigated the relationship between GBP and abnormal body fat distribution, those studies are not sufficient and have produced conflicting results.
In this study, we aimed to determine whether the development of GBP is associated with body fat distribution such as fatty liver, visceral obesity, or sarcopenia.
This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted using data from routine health checkups in a single tertiary center. Based on review of the medical records of subjects who underwent various laboratory tests, body composition measurement, and abdominal ultrasonography, 1405 subjects with GBPs were compared with 2810 age- and sex-matched controls.
Among the body fat distributions, only the presence of fatty liver was an independent risk factor for GBP [odds ratio (OR) 1.413; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.218-1.638; P < 0.001). Furthermore, fatty liver showed both independent (OR 1.629; 95%CI, 1.335-1.988; P < 0.001) and dose-dependent (moderate to severe fatty liver; OR 2.137; 95%CI, 1.662-2.749; P < 0.001) relationship with large GBPs (≥ 5 mm). However, visceral obesity and sarcopenia were not significantly associated with GBP.
Fatty liver was associated with an increased risk of GBP in a dose-dependent manner especially in larger GBPs.
The results of our study suggest the need of careful assessment of GBP using abdominal ultrasonography in patients with severe fatty liver. Further studies are warranted to validate the results and to explain the pathogenesis of this relationship seen in our study.