Published online Nov 28, 2020. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v26.i44.6979
Peer-review started: August 11, 2020
First decision: October 18, 2020
Revised: October 28, 2020
Accepted: November 13, 2020
Article in press: November 13, 2020
Published online: November 28, 2020
Gallbladder polyps (GBPs) are known to be associated with obesity and metabolic diseases. However, to date, the relationship between GBPs and abnormal body fat distribution, such as fatty liver, visceral obesity, or sarcopenia, has not yet been established.
To evaluate whether GBPs are associated with fatty liver, visceral obesity, or sarcopenia.
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of subjects who underwent various laboratory tests, body composition measurement with a non-invasive body composition analyzer, and abdominal ultrasonography during health checkups. A total of 1405 subjects with GBPs were compared with 2810 age- and sex-matched controls.
The mean age of the subjects was 46.8 ± 11.7 years, and 63.8% were male. According to multiple logistic regression analysis, the presence of fatty liver [odds ratio (OR) 1.413; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.218-1.638; P < 0.001] was an independent risk factor for GBP, together with low levels of alanine aminotransferase (OR 0.993; 95%CI 0.989-0.996; P < 0.001). Additionally, fatty liver showed both independent (OR 1.629; 95%CI, 1.335-1.988; P < 0.001) and dose-dependent (moderate to severe fatty liver; OR 2.137; 95%CI, 1.662-2.749; P < 0.001) relationship with large GBPs (≥ 5 mm). The presence of sarcopenia and high visceral fat area were not significantly associated with GBPs.
Fatty liver was found to be closely associated with GBPs irrespective of sarcopenia and visceral obesity.
Core Tip: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study evaluating relationship between gallbladder polyp (GBP) and various body compositions including body fat distribution by using data from routine health checkups. According to this study, only fatty liver was an independent risk factor for GBP among the body compositions; visceral obesity and sarcopenia were not associated with GBP. There was a dose-dependent relationship between GBP and fatty liver especially in the larger GBP group. The results of this study suggest that careful assessment of GBP using abdominal ultrasonography be considered in patients with severe fatty liver.