Retrospective Study
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2020. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Gastroenterol. Oct 21, 2020; 26(39): 6047-6056
Published online Oct 21, 2020. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v26.i39.6047
Relationships of early esophageal cancer with human papillomavirus and alcohol metabolism
Masaki Inoue, Yuichi Shimizu, Marin Ishikawa, Satoshi Abiko, Yoshihiko Shimoda, Ikko Tanaka, Sayoko Kinowaki, Masayoshi Ono, Keiko Yamamoto, Shoko Ono, Naoya Sakamoto
Masaki Inoue, Yoshihiko Shimoda, Ikko Tanaka, Sayoko Kinowaki, Naoya Sakamoto, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School of Medicine and Faculty of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0808, Japan
Yuichi Shimizu, Masayoshi Ono, Keiko Yamamoto, Division of Endoscopy, Hokkaido University Hospital, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8648, Japan
Marin Ishikawa, Department of Cancer Pathology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0808, Japan
Marin Ishikawa, Shoko Ono, Department of Gastroenterology, Hokkaido University Hospital, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8648, Japan
Satoshi Abiko, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Hakodate Municipal Hospital, Hakodate, Hokkaido 041-8680, Japan
Author contributions: Inoue M and Shimizu Y contributed equally to this work; Shimizu Y designed the research study; Inoue M, Shimoda Y, Tanaka I, Kinowaki S performed the research; Shimizu Y, Ono M, Yamamoto K, Ono S and Sakamoto N supervised the research; Inoue M, Shimizu Y and Abiko S analyzed data; Ishikawa M pathologically supervised the reseach; Inoue M and Shimizu Y wrote the manuscript; All authors have read and approve the final manuscript.
Institutional review board statement: This study was reviewed and approved by Hokkaido University Hospital Division of Clinical Research Administration.
Informed consent statement: Patients were not required to give informed consent to the study because the analysis used anonymous clinical data that were obtained after each patient agreed to treatment by written consent. For full disclosure, the details of the study are published on the home page of Hokkaido University.
Conflict-of-interest statement: We have no financial relationships to disclose.
Data sharing statement: No additional data are available.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Corresponding author: Yuichi Shimizu, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Division of Endoscopy, Hokkaido University Hospital, kita 14 jo, nishi 5 chome, kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8648, Japan.
Received: July 1, 2020
Peer-review started: July 1, 2020
First decision: July 28, 2020
Revised: August 13, 2020
Accepted: September 25, 2020
Article in press: September 25, 2020
Published online: October 21, 2020
Research background

There has been no study in which the relationship between superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and human papillomavirus (HPV) in addition to alcohol metabolism was evaluated.

Research motivation

We aimed to clarify whether HPV infection together with alcohol metabolism genes affects the carcinogenesis of ESCC.

Research objectives

We enrolled 145 patients who underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) or endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) for ESCC.

Research methods

We analyzed patients' genetic polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B)/ aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) and performed in situ hybridization for resected specimens to detect HPV by using an HPV type 16/18 probe.

Research results

There were no significant differences in HPV-positive rates according to either ADH1B/ALDH2 genotype or smoking and alcohol consumption histories.

Research conclusions

HPV status is considered to be less important than other risk factors, such as alcohol consumption, smoking habit, ADH1B/ALDH2 polymorphisms and HPV status would therefore have no effect on ESCC risk management.

Research perspectives

We are planning a multicenter study of patients with superficial pharyngeal cancer evaluating ADH1B/ALDH2 and HPV status.