Published online May 14, 2019. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v25.i18.2204
Peer-review started: January 7, 2019
First decision: March 13, 2019
Revised: March 25, 2019
Accepted: April 10, 2019
Article in press: April 10, 2019
Published online: May 14, 2019
Accumulating evidence demonstrated the alterations of gut microbiota in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) compared to healthy subjects. However, comparative analysis of mucosal microbiota in the same cohort of patients before and after treatment remains limited. The different characteristics of mucosa-associated gut microbiota between active and quiescent CD may provide as a predictive tool for disease relapse as well as a potential therapeutic target for treatment.
Most studies investigating the gut microbiota of CD have used fecal samples while only few studies have investigated the mucosal microbiota, which is believed to directly affect epithelial function and may be more deeply involved in the pathogenesis of CD. Although the dysbiosis of gut microbiota have been reported in patients with CD as compared with healthy controls, the microbial changes during treatment and their association with disease activity are largely unknown.
To illustrate the global alterations of mucosa-associated microbiota in patients with active CD before and after treatment.
A total of 74 mucosal biopsies were collected from 15 participants including 9 patients with CD and 6 healthy individuals. Sampling included both active and remission stages for each patient who underwent clinical treatment. The gut microbiota was sequenced by 16S rRNA analysis.
Our results showed that the structure of gut microbiota in patients with active CD changed significantly after the induction of remission, including the decreased abundance of pathogenic bacteria and increased abundance of beneficial bacteria.
The dysbiosis of mucosa-associated gut microbiota in active CD was partially restored after treatment, indicating the association of microbiota and disease activity.
The variations of gut microbiota may act as a tool to supervise and predict the recurrence of CD, and the maintenance of microbial homeostasis could become a potential therapeutic target for the disease.