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World J Gastroenterol. Jan 21, 2023; 29(3): 425-449
Published online Jan 21, 2023. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v29.i3.425
COVID-19 and hepatic injury: cellular and molecular mechanisms in diverse liver cells
Fares E M Ali, Mostafa K Abd El-Aziz, Mahmoud M Ali, Osama M Ghogar, Adel G Bakr
Fares E M Ali, Adel G Bakr, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Assiut 71524, Egypt
Mostafa K Abd El-Aziz, Mahmoud M Ali, Department of Pharmacology, Al-Azhar University, Assiut 71524, Egypt
Osama M Ghogar, Department of Biochemistry Faculty of Pharmacy, Badr University in Assiut, Egypt
Author contributions: Ali FEM designed and critically wrote the manuscript; Abd El-Aziz MK, Ali MM, Ghogar OM collected the data and drafted the manuscript, Bakr AG contributed to manuscript revision and proof editing.
Conflict-of-interest statement: All the authors report no relevant conflicts of interest for this article.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Corresponding author: Fares E M Ali, MSc, PhD, Lecturer, Research Scientist, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Al-Azhar Street, Assiut 71524, Egypt.
Received: September 13, 2022
Peer-review started: September 13, 2022
First decision: October 30, 2022
Revised: November 15, 2022
Accepted: December 23, 2022
Article in press: December 23, 2022
Published online: January 21, 2023

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) represents a global health and economic challenge. Hepatic injuries have been approved to be associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The viral tropism pattern of SARS-CoV-2 can induce hepatic injuries either by itself or by worsening the conditions of patients with hepatic diseases. Besides, other factors have been reported to play a crucial role in the pathological forms of hepatic injuries induced by SARS-CoV-2, including cytokine storm, hypoxia, endothelial cells, and even some treatments for COVID-19. On the other hand, several groups of people could be at risk of hepatic COVID-19 complications, such as pregnant women and neonates. The present review outlines and discusses the interplay between SARS-CoV-2 infection and hepatic injury, hepatic illness comorbidity, and risk factors. Besides, it is focused on the vaccination process and the role of developed vaccines in preventing hepatic injuries due to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Keywords: COVID-19, Hepatic injury, Viral tropism, COVID-19 comorbidity, Vaccination

Core Tip: The association between coronavirus disease-19 and hepatic injury is demonstrated by determining the viral tropism and its different pathological implications. A better understanding of the diversity and risk factors of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2-induced hepatic injury provides a fundamental approach to overcoming adverse effects. Moreover, vaccination can influence assessment and evaluation.