Published online May 28, 2020. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v26.i20.2599
Peer-review started: March 14, 2020
First decision: April 12, 2020
Revised: April 13, 2020
Accepted: May 15, 2020
Article in press: May 15, 2020
Published online: May 28, 2020
Previous evidence has implied that obesity is an independent risk factor for developing cancer. Being closely related to obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus provides a suitable environment for the formation and metastasis of tumors through multiple pathways. Although bariatric surgeries are effective in preventing and lowering the risk of various types of cancer, the underlying mechanisms of this effect are not clearly elucidated.
To uncover the role and effect of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) in preventing lung cancer in obese and diabetic rats.
SG was performed on obese and diabetic Wistar rats, and the postoperative transcriptional and translational alterations of the endothelin-1 (ET-1) axis in the lungs were compared to sham-operated obese and diabetic rats and age-matched healthy controls to assess the improvements in endothelial function and risk of developing lung cancer at the postoperative 4th, 8th, and 12th weeks. The risk was also evaluated using nuclear phosphorylation of H2A histone family member X as a marker of DNA damage (double-strand break).
Compared to obese and diabetic sham-operated rats, SG brought a significant reduction to body weight, food intake, and fasting blood glucose while improving oral glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. In addition, ameliorated levels of gene and protein expression in the ET-1 axis as well as reduced DNA damage indicated improved endothelial function and a lower risk of developing lung cancer after the surgery.
Apart from eliminating metabolic disorders, SG improves endothelial function and plays a protective role in preventing lung cancer via normalized ET-1 axis and reduced DNA damage.
Core tip: To explore the potential mechanism of bariatric surgery to reduce the risk of cancer, sleeve gastrectomy (SG) was performed on obese and diabetic rats. As a result, with a disrupted endothelin-1 axis, sham-operated subjects manifested deteriorated endothelial function and an increased risk of developing cancer compared to the healthy controls. However, far more than improving glycometabolism, SG reversed these negative effects by normalizing the endothelin-1 axis and reducing DNA damage, which contributed to the effects of SG to ameliorate endothelial function and prevent lung cancer.