Published online Nov 14, 2019. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v25.i42.6342
Peer-review started: May 27, 2019
First decision: July 21, 2019
Revised: September 11, 2019
Accepted: November 1, 2019
Article in press: November 1, 2019
Published online: November 14, 2019
The two main causes of gastric ulcer bleeding are Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and ulcerogenic medicines, although the number of cases caused by each may vary with age. In Japan, the rate of H. pylori infection has fallen over the last decade and the number of prescriptions for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and antithrombotic drugs is increasing as the population ages. Methods of treatment for gastric ulcer bleeding have advanced with the advent of hemostatic forceps and potassium-competitive acid blocker (P-CAB). Thus, causes and treatments for gastric ulcer bleeding have changed over the last decade.
To examine the trends of gastric ulcer bleeding over 10 years in the metropolitan area of Japan.
This is a single-center retrospective study. A total of 564 patients were enrolled from inpatients admitted to our hospital with gastric ulcer bleeding between 2006 and 2016. Age, medication history, H. pylori infection, method of treatment, rate of rebleeding, and the length of hospitalization were analyzed. Factors associated with gastric ulcer bleeding were evaluated using Fisher’s exact test, Pearson’s Chi-squared test or Student’s t-test as appropriate. The Jonckheere-Terpstra test was used to evaluate trends. A per-protocol analysis was used to examine the rate of H. pylori infection.
There was a significant increase in the mean age over time (P < 0.01). The rate of H. pylori infection tended to decrease over the study period (P = 0.10), whereas the proportion of patients taking antithrombotic agents or NSAIDs tended to increase (P = 0.07). Over time, the use of NSAIDs and antithrombotic drugs increased with age. By contrast, the rate of H. pylori infection during the study period fell with age. H. pylori-induced ulcers accounted for the majority of cases in younger patients (< 70 years old); however, the rate decreased with age (P < 0.01). The method of treatment trend has changed significantly over time. The main method of endoscopic hemostasis has changed from clipping and injection to forceps coagulation (P < 0.01), and frequently prescribed medicines have changed from proton pump inhibitor to P-CAB (P < 0.01). The rate of rebleeding during the latter half of the study was significantly lower than that in the first half.
These trends, gastric ulcers caused by ulcerogenic drugs were increasing with age and H. pylori-induced ulcers were more common in younger patients, were observed.
Core tip: The two main causes of gastric ulcer bleeding are Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and ulcerogenic medicines, although the number of cases caused by each may vary with age. The aim of this study was to examine changes of gastric ulcer bleeding over 10 years. The mean age increased significantly. The rate of H. pylori infection tended to decrease, whereas the proportion of patients taking antithrombotic agents or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs tended to increase. H. pylori-induced ulcers accounted for the majority in younger patients and the proportion of gastric ulcers caused by ulcerogenic drugs was increasing with age.