Published online Sep 28, 2019. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v25.i36.5469
Peer-review started: July 10, 2019
First decision: August 5, 2019
Revised: August 17, 2019
Accepted: August 24, 2019
Article in press: August 24, 2019
Published online: September 28, 2019
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gas-troenterological diseases characterized by abnormal visceral sensitivity and low-grade inflammation. The role of Clostridium butyricum (C. butyricum) in reducing intestinal low-grade inflammation via immune pathways has been well defined. However, the detailed mechanisms of the effects of C. butyricum on intestinal mucosal immunity, especially on immune cells of the lamina propria, remain unclear. Dendritic cells (DCs), which are important immune cells, secrete proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and others) and express T cell immuno-globulin and mucin domain-3 (TIM3), promoting proliferation and activation of DCs, and mediating Th1 and Th17 inflammatory responses.
To investigate the role of DCs in the development of IBS in a rat model and to understand the regulation of DCs after C. butyricum intervention.
An IBS animal model was established using C57BL/6 mice, and C. butyricum was continuously administered via the intragastric route to simulate different intestinal immune states. Intestinal visceral hypersensitivity and histopathology were assessed using the abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) test and hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) staining, respectively. The expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and IL-6) and TIM3 was analyzed by Western blot analysis and real-time PCR. Flow cytometry was applied to analyze the quantity, function, and membrane molecule TIM3 of the lamina propria dendritic cells (LPDCs). The regulatory effect of C. butyricum was verified in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells by in vitro experiments.
The secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and IL-6) in mice with IBS was significantly increased compared with that of the control group, which suggested that the intestinal mucosa in mice with IBS was in a low-grade inflammatory state. The expression of CD11C+CD80+ and CD11c+TIM3+ in intestinal LPDCs in mice with IBS increased significantly. Meanwhile, the cytokines (IL-1β and IL-6) were significantly reduced after the intervention with probiotic C. butyricum. The amount and function of LPDCs and the TIM3 on the surface of the LPDCs were decreased with the alleviation of the intestinal inflammatory response.
The results suggest that C. butyricum regulates the amount and functional status of LPDCs in the intestinal mucosa of mice with IBS, and therefore modulates the local immune response in the intestine.
Core tip: In this study, we revealed that Clostridium butyricum can regulate the number and functional status of lamina propria dendritic cells in the intestinal mucosa of mice with irritable bowel syndrome, and therefore modulate the local immune response in the intestine.