Published online Sep 7, 2018. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v24.i33.3724
Peer-review started: April 25, 2018
First decision: May 16, 2018
Revised: May 22, 2018
Accepted: June 27, 2018
Article in press: June 27, 2018
Published online: September 7, 2018
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most frequently diagnosed malignant diseases. The molecular mechanisms of metastasis remain unclear. Recently, studies have shown that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play critical roles in metastasis. Therefore, deeper understanding of this mechanism could provide potential diagnostic tools and therapeutic targets for metastatic GC. This review focuses on dysregulated lncRNAs in GC metastases. Due to the identification of multiple diverse mechanisms involved in GC metastasis, we classified them into seven categories, including lncRNAs related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition, regulation of degradation of extracellular matrix, angiopoiesis, vasculogenic mimicry, and immunologic escape. As the TNM stage is pivotal for evaluating the severity and prognosis of GC patients, we summarize the lncRNAs relevant to lymphatic metastasis, distant metastasis and TNM classification. This review summarizes the lncRNAs related to metastasis, which may provide insight into the mechanisms, and provide potential markers for prognostic prediction and monitoring the relapse of GC.
Core tip: This review summarizes the long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) that influence metastasis of gastric cancer. We classified lncRNAs according to their molecular mechanism, which included epithelial-mesenchymal transition, epigenetic regulation, degradation of the extracellular matrix, angiopoiesis, vasculogenic mimicry, and immunologic escape. Finally, we summarized the lncRNAs that have stable expression in serum and describe their clinical value. A table lists the clinical correlation of the lncRNAs in details.