Published online Feb 28, 2017. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v23.i8.1375
Peer-review started: October 13, 2016
First decision: December 2, 2016
Revised: December 20, 2016
Accepted: January 17, 2017
Article in press: January 17, 2017
Published online: February 28, 2017
To investigate the therapeutic effect of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) on inﬂammatory bowel disease (IBD) and to explore the potential mechanisms involved.
Male mice were randomly divided into the following four groups: control group, in which the mice received equivalent volumes of normal saline (NS) intraperitoneally (ip); dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) group, in which the mice received NS ip (5 mL/kg body weight, twice per day at 8 am and 5 pm) for 7 consecutive days after IBD modeling; DSS + HRW group, in which the mice received HRW (in the same volume as the NS treatment) for 7 consecutive days after IBD modeling; and DSS + HRW + ZnPP group, in which the mice received HRW (in the same volume as the NS treatment) and ZnPP [a heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitor, 25 mg/kg] for 7 consecutive days after IBD modeling. IBD was induced by feeding DSS to the mice, and blood and colon tissues were collected on the 7th d after IBD modeling to determine clinical symptoms, colonic inﬂammation and the potential mechanisms involved.
The DSS + HRW group exhibited significantly attenuated weight loss and a lower extent of disease activity index compared with the DSS group on the 7th d (P < 0.05). HRW exerted protective effects against colon shortening and colonic wall thickening in contrast to the DSS group (P < 0.05). The histological study demonstrated milder inflammation in the DSS + HRW group, which was similar to normal inflammatory levels, and the macroscopic and microcosmic damage scores were lower in this group than in the DSS group (P < 0.05). The oxidative stress parameters, including MDA and MPO in the colon, were significantly decreased in the DSS + HRW group compared with the DSS group (P < 0.05). Simultaneously, the protective indicators, superoxide dismutase and glutathione, were markedly increased with the use of HRW. Inflammatory factors were assessed, and the results showed that the DSS + HRW group exhibited significantly reduced levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β compared with the DSS group (P < 0.05). In addition, the pivotal proteins involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, including p-eIF2α, ATF4, XBP1s and CHOP, were dramatically reduced after HRW treatment in contrast to the control group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, HRW treatment markedly up-regulated HO-1 expression, and the use of ZnPP obviously reversed the protective role of HRW. In the DSS + HRW + ZnPP group, colon shortening and colonic wall thickening were significantly aggravated, and the macroscopic damage scores were similar to those of the DSS + HRW group (P < 0.05). The histological study also showed more serious colonic damage that was similar to the DSS group.
HRW has a significant therapeutic potential in IBD by inhibiting inflammatory factors, oxidative stress and ER stress and by up-regulating HO-1 expression.
Core tip: Inﬂammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic and relapsing disease primarily caused by the production of pro-inﬂammatory cytokines and leukocyte inﬁltration, resulting in structural and functional damage to the bowel. Hydrogen has obvious anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. We launched a study to investigate the protective role of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) on IBD in mice. The present study found that HRW has a significant therapeutic potential in IBD by inhibiting inflammatory factors, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress and by up-regulating heme oxygenase-1 expression.