Review
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2017. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Gastroenterol. May 7, 2017; 23(17): 3030-3042
Published online May 7, 2017. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v23.i17.3030
Genes, emotions and gut microbiota: The next frontier for the gastroenterologist
Arturo Panduro, Ingrid Rivera-Iñiguez, Maricruz Sepulveda-Villegas, Sonia Roman
Arturo Panduro, Ingrid Rivera-Iñiguez, Maricruz Sepulveda-Villegas, Sonia Roman, Department of Molecular Biology in Medicine, Civil Hospital of Guadalajara, “Fray Antonio Alcalde”, Guadalajara 44280, Jalisco, Mexico
Arturo Panduro, Ingrid Rivera-Iñiguez, Maricruz Sepulveda-Villegas, Sonia Roman, Health Sciences Center, University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara 44280, Jalisco, Mexico
Author contributions: Panduro A conceived the idea, wrote and critically revised the content of this article; Rivera-Iñiguez I performed the literature research, drew the illustrations and drafted the first version of the manuscript paper; Sepulveda-Villegas M performed the literature research, drew the illustrations and wrote the paper; Roman S wrote, integrated the final version and critically revised the article; all authors read and approved the final version.
Supported by Prodep-Universidad de Guadalajara, No. CA-478.
Conflict-of-interest statement: Authors declare no conflict of interest for this article.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Correspondence to: Arturo Panduro, MD, PhD, FAASLD, Department of Molecular Biology in Medicine, Civil Hospital of Guadalajara “Fray Antonio Alcalde”, Hospital # 278, Col. El Retiro, Guadalajara, Jalisco 44280, México. apanduro@prodigy.net.mx
Telephone: +52-33-36147743 Fax: +52-33-36147743
Received: January 27, 2017
Peer-review started: February 6, 2017
First decision: March 3, 2017
Revised: March 10, 2017
Accepted: April 12, 2017
Article in press: April 12, 2017
Published online: May 7, 2017
Abstract

Most medical specialties including the field of gastroenterology are mainly aimed at treating diseases rather than preventing them. Genomic medicine studies the health/disease process based on the interaction of the human genes with the environment. The gastrointestinal (GI) system is an ideal model to analyze the interaction between our genes, emotions and the gut microbiota. Based on the current knowledge, this mini-review aims to provide an integrated synopsis of this interaction to achieve a better understanding of the GI disorders related to bad eating habits and stress-related disease. Since human beings are the result of an evolutionary process, many biological processes such as instincts, emotions and behavior are interconnected to guarantee survival. Nourishment is a physiological need triggered by the instinct of survival to satisfy the body’s energy demands. The brain-gut axis comprises a tightly connected neural-neuroendocrine circuitry between the hunger-satiety center, the dopaminergic reward system involved in the pleasure of eating and the gut microbiota that regulates which food we eat and emotions. However, genetic variations and the consumption of high-sugar and high-fat diets have overridden this energy/pleasure neurocircuitry to the point of addiction of several foodstuffs. Consequently, a gut dysbiosis generates inflammation and a negative emotional state may lead to chronic diseases. Balancing this altered processes to regain health may involve personalized-medicine and genome-based strategies. Thus, an integrated approach based on the understanding of the gene-emotions-gut microbiota interaction is the next frontier that awaits the gastroenterologist to prevent and treat GI disorders associated with obesity and negative emotions.

Keywords: Genes, Emotions, Brain reward system, Gut microbiota, Gastrointestinal disease, Personalized medicine, Genome-based nutrition, Nutrigenetics, Food decision-making, Obesity

Core tip: Even though instincts, emotions, and behavior are evolutionary mechanisms for humans to adapt, dysfunctional genes, chronic negative emotions and gut dysbiosis are high risk factors for different diseases. A deep study of the gene-environmental interactions and the gut-bacteria consortium is a key factor that could help to understand how negative emotions are translated into disease. Physicians do not always consider that emotional factors aggravate disease progression and severity. Therefore, personalized-medicine and genomic-based nutrition strategies may aid in the prevention and reduction in the prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders associated with obesity and negative emotions.