Published online Feb 7, 2016. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v22.i5.1779
Peer-review started: July 30, 2015
First decision: August 31, 2015
Revised: October 9, 2015
Accepted: December 8, 2015
Article in press: December 8, 2015
Published online: February 7, 2016
Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is a technique with an established role in the diagnosis and staging of gastro-intestinal tumors. In recent years, the spread of new devices dedicated to tissue sampling has improved the diagnostic accuracy of EUS fine-needle aspiration. The development of EUS-guided drainage of the bilio-pancreatic region and abdominal fluid collections has allowed EUS to evolve into an interventional tool that can replace more invasive procedures. Emerging techniques applying EUS in pancreatic cancer treatment and in celiac neurolysis have been described. Recently, confocal laser endomicroscopy has been applied to EUS as a promising technique for the in vivo histological diagnosis of gastro-intestinal, bilio-pancreatic and lymph node lesions. In this state-of-the-art review, we report the most recent data from the literature regarding EUS devices, interventional EUS, EUS-guided confocal laser endomicroscopy and EUS pancreatic cancer treatment, and we also provide an overview of their principles, clinical applications and limitations.
Core tip: The aim of this review is to report the most up-to-date advances and cutting-edge technologies in the field of interventional endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and EUS-guided confocal laser endomicroscopy.