Topic Highlight
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2016. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Gastroenterol. Feb 7, 2016; 22(5): 1779-1786
Published online Feb 7, 2016. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v22.i5.1779
Endoscopic ultrasonography: Transition towards the future of gastro-intestinal diseases
Stefania De Lisi, Marc Giovannini
Stefania De Lisi, Department of Gastroenterology, A.O. Fatebenefratelli e Oftalmico, 20121 Milan, Italy
Marc Giovannini, Department of Gastroenterology, Paoli-Calmettes Institute, 13009 Marseille, France
Author contributions: De Lisi S designed the research, performed literature research and wrote the manuscript; Giovannini M contributed to the conception and revision of the manuscript for important intellettual content; all authors approved the final version of the article.
Conflict-of-interest statement: De Lisi S declares no conflicts of interest; Giovannini M does research for Mauna Kea Technologies and Wilson-Cook.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Correspondence to: Stefania De Lisi, MD, Department of Gastroenterology, A.O. Fatebenefratelli e Oftalmico, Corso di Porta Nuova 21, 20121 Milan, Italy.
Telephone: +39-02-63632506 Fax: +39-02-63632506
Received: July 24, 2015
Peer-review started: July 30, 2015
First decision: August 31, 2015
Revised: October 9, 2015
Accepted: December 8, 2015
Article in press: December 8, 2015
Published online: February 7, 2016

Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is a technique with an established role in the diagnosis and staging of gastro-intestinal tumors. In recent years, the spread of new devices dedicated to tissue sampling has improved the diagnostic accuracy of EUS fine-needle aspiration. The development of EUS-guided drainage of the bilio-pancreatic region and abdominal fluid collections has allowed EUS to evolve into an interventional tool that can replace more invasive procedures. Emerging techniques applying EUS in pancreatic cancer treatment and in celiac neurolysis have been described. Recently, confocal laser endomicroscopy has been applied to EUS as a promising technique for the in vivo histological diagnosis of gastro-intestinal, bilio-pancreatic and lymph node lesions. In this state-of-the-art review, we report the most recent data from the literature regarding EUS devices, interventional EUS, EUS-guided confocal laser endomicroscopy and EUS pancreatic cancer treatment, and we also provide an overview of their principles, clinical applications and limitations.

Keywords: Endoscopic ultrasonography, Endoscopic ultrasonography fine-needle aspiration, Confocal laser endomicroscopy, Biliary drainage, Pancreatic cancer treatment

Core tip: The aim of this review is to report the most up-to-date advances and cutting-edge technologies in the field of interventional endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and EUS-guided confocal laser endomicroscopy.