Published online Jul 7, 2015. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i25.7911
Peer-review started: March 4, 2015
First decision: April 13, 2015
Revised: May 9, 2015
Accepted: May 21, 2015
Article in press: May 21, 2015
Published online: July 7, 2015
Helicobacter cinaedi (H. cinaedi), a Gram-negative spiral-shaped bacterium, is an enterohepatic non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter species. We report the first case of H. cinaedi bacteremia with cellulitis after liver transplantation. A 48-year-old male, who had been a dog breeder for 15 years, underwent ABO-incompatible living-donor liver transplantation for hepatitis C virus-induced decompensated cirrhosis using an anti-hepatitis B core antibody-positive graft. The patient was preoperatively administered rituximab and underwent plasma exchange twice to overcome blood type incompatibility. After discharge, he had been doing well with immunosuppression therapy comprising cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroid according to the ABO-incompatible protocol of our institution. However, 7 mo after transplantation, he was admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of recurrent cellulitis on the left lower extremity, and H. cinaedi was detected by both blood culture and polymerase chain reaction analysis. Antibiotics improved his symptoms, and he was discharged at day 30 after admission. Clinicians should be more aware of H. cinaedi in immunocompromised patients, such as ABO-incompatible transplant recipients.
Core tip: This is the ﬁrst case report of Helicobacter cinaedi infection in a liver transplant recipient. Clinicians should be aware of this microorganism when treating immunocompromised patients, such as ABO-incompatible liver transplant recipients with symptoms of cellulitis.