Published online Jan 14, 2015. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i2.432
Peer-review started: July 27, 2014
First decision: August 15, 2014
Revised: September 4, 2014
Accepted: October 21, 2014
Article in press: October 21, 2014
Published online: January 14, 2015
Foregut cystic developmental malformation (FCDM) is a very rare lesion of the alimentary tract, especially in the stomach. We discuss the concepts of gastric duplication cyst, bronchogenic cysts, and FCDM. Nomenclature has been inconsistent and confusing, but, by some definitions, gastric duplication cysts involve gastric mucosa and submucosal glands, bronchogenic cysts involve respiratory mucosa with underlying cartilage and glands, and FCDM lacks gastric mucosa or underlying glands or cartilage but has pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium (PCCE). We searched our departmental case files from the past 15 years and identified 12 cases of FCDM in the alimentary tract. We summarize the features of these 12 cases including a report in detail on a 52-year-old man with a submucosal cyst lined with simple PCCE and irregular and stratified circular muscle layers that merged with gastric smooth muscle bundles near the lesser curvature of the gastric cardia. A literature review of cases with this histology yielded 25 cases. We propose the term gastric-FCDM for such cases. Our own series of 12 cases confirms that preoperative recognition of the entity is infrequent and problematic. The rarity of this developmental disorder, as well as a lack of understanding of its embryologic origins, may contribute to missing the diagnosis. Not appreciating the diagnosis preoperatively can lead to an inappropriate surgical approach. In contrast, presurgical recognition of the entity will contribute to a good outcome and reduced risk of complications.
Core tip: Gastric foregut cystic developmental malformation is a rare lesion that has been reported intermittently in recent decades. Its classification was inconsistent. It has often been misdiagnosed preoperatively. By missing the nature of the diagnosis, the surgical management was quite different. Through a review of the case series and literature concerning their clinical and radiologic features, and recognition of its embryologic and histological origin, we found that it is not an irregular disease and is an easily missed diagnosis. It can be cured by rational surgery, contributing to a good outcome and reduced risk of complications.