Review
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2015. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Gastroenterol. Mar 21, 2015; 21(11): 3184-3196
Published online Mar 21, 2015. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i11.3184
Updates in vaccination: Recommendations for adult inflammatory bowel disease patients
Khadija Chaudrey, Michelle Salvaggio, Aftab Ahmed, Sultan Mahmood, Tauseef Ali
Khadija Chaudrey, Tauseef Ali, Department of Medicine, Section of Gastroenterology, Oklahoma University Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma, OK 73104, United States
Michelle Salvaggio, Department of Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, Oklahoma University Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma, OK 73104, United States
Aftab Ahmed, Sultan Mahmood, Department of Internal Medicine, Oklahoma University Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma, OK 73104, United States
Tauseef Ali, Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center, Oklahoma University Physicians, Oklahoma, OK 73104, United States
Author contributions: Chaudrey K contributed to literature search and wrote the manuscript; Mahmood S and Ahmed A contributed to literature review and proof reading of the manuscript; Ali T and Salvaggio M performed proof reading of the manuscript.
Conflict-of-interest: Dr. Khadija Chaudrey has neither received fees for serving as a speaker nor has received research funding from any organization for this review article. Dr. Khadija Chaudrey is an employee of University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center and the institute has no conflict of interest with the article. Dr. Khadija Chaudrey does not own stocks and/or shares and/or patents in any organization that would have conflict of interest with this review article.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Correspondence to: Khadija Chaudrey, MD, Department of Medicine, Section of Gastroenterology, Oklahoma University Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma, OK 73104, United States. drkchaudrey@gmail.com
Telephone: +1-347-4395656
Received: September 29, 2014
Peer-review started: September 29, 2014
First decision: October 29, 2014
Revised: November 16, 2014
Accepted: January 30, 2015
Article in press: January 30, 2015
Published online: March 21, 2015
Abstract

Treatment regimens for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) incorporate the use of a variety of immunosuppressive agents that increase the risk of infections. Prevention of many of these infections can be achieved by the timely and judicious use of vaccinations. IBD patients tend to be under-immunized. Some of the contributing factors are lack of awareness regarding the significance of vaccinating IBD patients, misperception about safety of vaccinations in immunocompromised patients, ambiguity about the perceived role of the gastroenterologist in contrast to the primary care physician and unavailability of vaccination guidelines focused on IBD population. In general, immunocompetent IBD patients can be vaccinated using standard vaccination recommendations. However there are special considerations for IBD patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy, IBD travelers and pregnant women with IBD. This review discusses current vaccination recommendations with updates for adult IBD patients. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2013 vaccination guidelines with 2014 updates and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendations have been highlighted as a primary source of recommendations.

Keywords: Inflammatory bowel disease, Vaccination, Immunocompromised, Influenza, Pneumococcal, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Core tip: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk of infection because of use of immunosuppressive agents for treatment in many of them. While immunocompetent IBD patients can be vaccinated using standard vaccination schedule, special guidelines need to be followed for IBD patients getting immunosuppressive therapy. In this review article the focus is on current vaccination recommendations for adult IBD patients. This is a much needed discussion as lack of awareness and misperceptions about vaccination safety is a major cause of under immunization in IBD patients.