Published online Jan 7, 2015. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i1.102
Peer-review started: July 29, 2014
First decision: August 15, 2014
Revised: August 30, 2014
Accepted: October 15, 2014
Article in press: October 15, 2014
Published online: January 7, 2015
Intestinal dysbiosis is now known to be a complication in a myriad of diseases. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), as a microbiota-target therapy, is arguably very effective for curing Clostridium difficile infection and has good outcomes in other intestinal diseases. New insights have raised an interest in FMT for the management of extra-intestinal disorders associated with gut microbiota. This review shows that it is an exciting time in the burgeoning science of FMT application in previously unexpected areas, including metabolic diseases, neuropsychiatric disorders, autoimmune diseases, allergic disorders, and tumors. A randomized controlled trial was conducted on FMT in metabolic syndrome by infusing microbiota from lean donors or from self-collected feces, with the resultant findings showing that the lean donor feces group displayed increased insulin sensitivity, along with increased levels of butyrate-producing intestinal microbiota. Case reports of FMT have also shown favorable outcomes in Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, myoclonus dystonia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. FMT is a promising approach in the manipulation of the intestinal microbiota and has potential applications in a variety of extra-intestinal conditions associated with intestinal dysbiosis.
Core tip: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) achieved a successful cure rate in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Although there is a deficiency of randomized controlled trials, the present review reveals that FMT could be a promising rescue therapy in extra-intestinal disorders associated with gut microbiota, including metabolic diseases, neuropsychiatric disorders, autoimmune diseases, allergic disorders, and tumors.