Original Article
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World J Gastroenterol. Aug 7, 2013; 19(29): 4689-4701
Published online Aug 7, 2013. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i29.4689
Garcinia Cambogia attenuates diet-induced adiposity but exacerbates hepatic collagen accumulation and inflammation
Young-Je Kim, Myung-Sook Choi, Yong Bok Park, Sang Ryong Kim, Mi-Kyung Lee, Un Ju Jung
Young-Je Kim, Myung-Sook Choi, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, South Korea
Myung-Sook Choi, Un Ju Jung, Center for Food and Nutritional Genomics Research, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, South Korea
Yong Bok Park, Sang Ryong Kim, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, South Korea
Sang Ryong Kim, Brain Science and Engineering Institute, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, South Korea
Mi-Kyung Lee, Department of Food and Nutrition, Sunchon National University, Jeonnam 540-742, South Korea
Author contributions: Kim YJ and Choi MS contributed equally to this work; Kim YJ performed experiments and analyzed the data; Choi MS designed the study and reviewed and revised the manuscript; Park YB, Kim SR and Lee MK contributed to the critical edition of the manuscript; Jung UJ designed the study, performed experiments, analyzed the data and wrote the manuscript.
Supported by The Basic Science Research Program, No. 2011-0022387; and the SRC program, Center for Food and Nutritional Genomics: No. 2012-0000644 through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology
Correspondence to: Un Ju Jung, PhD, Center for Food and Nutritional Genomics Research, Kyungpook National University, 1370 San-Kyuk Dong, Puk-Ku, Daegu 702-701, South Korea. jungunju@naver.com
Telephone: +82-53-9507937 Fax: +82-53-9581230
Received: March 22, 2013
Revised: May 15, 2013
Accepted: June 1, 2013
Published online: August 7, 2013

AIM: To investigate long-term effects of Garcinia Cambogia (GC), weight-loss supplement, on adiposity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese mice.

METHODS: Obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 45 kcal% fat) with or without GC (1%, w/w) for 16 wk. The HFD contained 45 kcal% fat, 20 kcal% protein and 35 kcal% carbohydrate. They were given free access to food and distilled water, and food consumption and body weight were measured daily and weekly, respectively. Data were expressed as the mean ± SE. Statistical analyses were performed using the statistical package for the social science software program. Student’s t test was used to assess the differences between the groups. Statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05.

RESULTS: There were no significant changes in body weight and food intake between the groups. However, the supplementation of GC significantly lowered visceral fat accumulation and adipocyte size via inhibition of fatty acid synthase activity and its mRNA expression in visceral adipose tissue, along with enhanced enzymatic activity and gene expression involved in adipose fatty acid β-oxidation. Moreover, GC supplementation resulted in significant reductions in glucose intolerance and the plasma resistin level in the HFD-fed mice. However, we first demonstrated that it increased hepatic collagen accumulation, lipid peroxidation and mRNA levels of genes related to oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) and inflammatory responses (tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) as well as plasma alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels, although HFD-induced hepatic steatosis was not altered.

CONCLUSION: GC protects against HFD-induced obesity by modulating adipose fatty acid synthesis and β-oxidation but induces hepatic fibrosis, inflammation and oxidative stress.

Keywords: Garcinia Cambogia, Anti-adiposity, Metabolic changes, Hepatic collagen accumulation, Hepatic inflammation, Hepatic oxidative stress

Core tip:Garcinia Cambogia (GC) is a popular dietary supplement for weight loss. However, little is known about the efficacy and hepatotoxicity of long-term GC supplementation in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). We observed that GC ameliorated HFD-induced adiposity by modulating enzymatic activity and gene expression involved in fatty acid metabolism. GC also reduced the plasma resistin level and glucose intolerance. However, GC caused hepatic collagen accumulation, inflammation and oxidative stress without affecting hepatic steatosis.