Published online Jun 21, 2013. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i23.3608
Revised: April 4, 2013
Accepted: April 9, 2013
Published online: June 21, 2013
AIM: To clarify the diagnostic values of hematoxylin and eosin (HE), D2-40, CD31, CD34, and HHV-8 immunohistochemical (IHC) staining in gastrointestinal Kaposi’s sarcoma (GI-KS) in relation to endoscopic tumor staging.
METHODS: Biopsy samples (n = 133) from 41 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients were reviewed. GI-KS was defined as histologically negative for other GI diseases and as a positive clinical response to KS therapy. The receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (ROC-AUC) was compared in relation to lesion size, GI location, and macroscopic appearances on endoscopy.
RESULTS: GI-KS was confirmed in 84 lesions (81.6%). Other endoscopic findings were polyps (n = 9), inflammation (n = 4), malignant lymphoma (n = 4), and condyloma (n = 2), which mimicked GI-KS on endoscopy. ROC-AUC of HE, D2-40, blood vessel markers, and HHV-8 showed results of 0.83, 0.89, 0.80, and 0.82, respectively. For IHC staining, the ROC-AUC of D2-40 was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of HE staining only. In the analysis of endoscopic appearance, the ROC-AUC of HE and IHC showed a tendency toward an increase in tumor staging (e.g., small to large, patches, and polypoid to SMT appearance). D2-40 was significantly (P < 0.05) advantageous in the upper GI tract and for polypoid appearance compared with HE staining.
CONCLUSION: The diagnostic value of endothelial markers and HHV-8 staining was found to be high, and its accuracy tended to increase with endoscopic tumor staging. D2-40 will be useful for complementing HE staining in the diagnosis of GI-KS, especially in the upper GI tract and for polypoid appearance.
Core tip: Diagnosis of gastrointestinal Kaposi sarcoma (GI-KS) is important because treatment specifics depend on the extent of the disease. Endoscopic biopsy is a definitive diagnostic method for GI-KS, but its diagnostic accuracy has not been fully studied. In the current study, receiver operating characteristic area under the curve of hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, lymphatic and blood vessel endothelial cell markers, and HHV-8 was found to be high (> 0.80), and its accuracy tended to increase with endoscopic tumor staging. D2-40 will be useful for complementing HE staining in the diagnosis of GI-KS, especially in the upper GI tract and for polypoid appearance.