Published online Apr 7, 2012. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v18.i13.1479
Revised: February 9, 2012
Accepted: February 16, 2012
Published online: April 7, 2012
AIM: To investigate the effects of curcumin on gastric microcirculation and inflammation in rats with indomethacin-induced gastric damage.
METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (control group, n = 5) was fed with olive oil and 5% NaHCO3- (vehicle). Group 2 [indomethacin (IMN) group, n = 5] was fed with olive oil 30 min prior to indomethacin 150 mg/kg body weight (BW) dissolved in 5% NaHCO3- at time 0th and 4th h. Group 3 (IMN + Cur group, n = 4) was fed with curcumin 200 mg/kg BW dissolved in olive oil 0.5 mL, 30 min prior to indomethacin at 0th and 4th h. Leukocyte-endothelium interactions at postcapillary venules were recorded after acridine orange injection. Blood samples were determined for intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. Finally, the stomach was removed for histopathological examination for gastric lesions and grading for neutrophil infiltration.
RESULTS: In group 2, the leukocyte adherence in postcapillary venules was significantly increased compared to the control group (6.40 ± 2.30 cells/frame vs 1.20 ± 0.83 cells/frame, P = 0.001). Pretreatment with curcumin caused leukocyte adherence to postcapillary venule to decline (3.00 ± 0.81 cells/frame vs 6.40 ± 2.30 cells/frame, P = 0.027). The levels of ICAM-1 and TNF-α increased significantly in the indomethacin-treated group compared with the control group (1106.50 ± 504.22 pg/mL vs 336.93 ± 224.82 pg/mL, P = 0.011 and 230.92 ± 114.47 pg/mL vs 47.13 ± 65.59 pg/mL, P = 0.009 respectively). Pretreatment with curcumin significantly decreased the elevation of ICAM-1 and TNF-α levels compared to treatment with indomethacin alone (413.66 ± 147.74 pg/mL vs 1106.50 ± 504.22 pg/mL, P = 0.019 and 58.27 ± 67.74 pg/mL vs 230.92 ± 114.47 pg/mL, P = 0.013 respectively). The histological appearance of the stomach in the control group was normal. In the indomethacin-treated group, the stomachs showed a mild to moderate neutrophil infiltration score. Gastric lesions were erosive and ulcerative. In rats treated with indomethacin and curcumin, stomach histopathology improved and showed only a mild neutrophil infiltration score and fewer erosive lesions in the gastric mucosa.
CONCLUSION: The results indicate that curcumin prevents indomethacin-induced gastropathy through the improvement of gastric microcirculation by attenuating the level of ICAM-1 and TNF-α.