Brief Article
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World J Gastroenterol. Dec 14, 2010; 16(46): 5874-5880
Published online Dec 14, 2010. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v16.i46.5874
Metabolomics of gastric cancer metastasis detected by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry
Jin-Lian Chen, Hui-Qing Tang, Jun-Duo Hu, Jing Fan, Jing Hong, Jian-Zhong Gu
Jin-Lian Chen, Jun-Duo Hu, Jing Fan, Jing Hong, Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200233, China
Hui-Qing Tang, Jian-Zhong Gu, Shanghai Laboratory Animal Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201615, China
Author contributions: Chen JL designed the study; Hu JD, Fan J, Hong J, Tang HQ and Gu JZ performed the study; Tang HQ, Hu JD and Fan J analyzed the data; Chen JL wrote the paper.
Supported by Grants from Shanghai Key Program of Science and Technology Committee (09JC1411600) and Shanghai Natural Science Foundation (08ZR1411300)
Correspondence to: Jin-Lian Chen, MD, PhD, Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 600 Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233, China.
Telephone: +86-21-64369181 Fax: +86-21-64369181
Received: September 5, 2010
Revised: October 19, 2010
Accepted: October 26, 2010
Published online: December 14, 2010

AIM: To elucidate the underlying mechanisms of metastasis and to identify the metabolomic markers of gastric cancer metastasis.

METHODS: Gastric tumors from metastatic and non-metastatic groups were used in this study. Metabolites and different metabolic patterns were analyzed by gas chromatography, mass spectrometry and principal components analysis (PCA), respectively. Differentiation performance was validated by the area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic curves.

RESULTS: Twenty-nine metabolites were differentially expressed in animal models of human gastric cancer. Of the 29 metabolites, 20 were up-regulated and 9 were down-regulated in metastasis group compared to non-metastasis group. PCA models from the metabolite profiles could differentiate the metastatic from the non-metastatic specimens with an AUC value of 1.0. These metabolites were mainly involved in several metabolic pathways, including glycolysis (lactic acid, alaline), serine metabolism (serine, phosphoserine), proline metabolism (proline), glutamic acid metabolism, tricarboxylic acid cycle (succinate, malic acid), nucleotide metabolism (pyrimidine), fatty acid metabolism (docosanoic acid, and octadecanoic acid), and methylation(glycine). The serine and proline metabolisms were highlighted during the progression of metastasis.

CONCLUSION: Proline and serine metabolisms play an important role in metastasis. The metabolic profiling of tumor tissue can provide new biomarkers for the treatment of gastric cancer metastasis.

Keywords: Gastric cancer, Metastasis, Metabolite, Metabolomics, Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry