Published online Apr 1, 2004. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v10.i7.925
Revised: December 1, 2003
Accepted: December 6, 2003
Published online: April 1, 2004
DC-SIGN, a dendritic Cell-specific adhesion receptor and a type II transmembrane mannose-binding C-type lectin, is very important in the function of DC, both in mediating naive T cell interactions through ICAM-3 and as a rolling receptor that mediates the DC-specific ICAM-2-dependent migration processes. It can be used by viral and bacterial pathogens including Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), HCV, Ebola Virus, CMV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis to facilitate infection. Both DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR can act either in cis, by concentrating virus on target cells, or in trans, by transmission of bound virus to a target cell expressing appropropriate entry receptors. Recent work showed that DC-SIGN are high-affinity binding receptors for HCV. Besides playing a role in entry into DC, HCV E2 interaction with DC-SIGN might also be detrimental for the interaction of DC with T cells during antigen presentation. The clinical strategies that target DC-SIGN may be successful in restricting HCV dissemination and pathogenesis as well as directing the migration of DCs to manipulate appropriate immune responses in autoimmunity and tumorigenic situations.