World J Gastroenterol. 2014 January 21; 20(3): 613-629.
Published online 2014 January 21. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i3.613.
©2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Co., Limited. All rights reserved.
Helicobacter pylori and autoimmune disease: Cause or bystander
Daniel S Smyk, Andreas L Koutsoumpas, Maria G Mytilinaiou, Dimitrios P Bogdanos, Institute of Liver Studies, Division of Transplantation Immunology and Mucosal Biology, King’s College Hospital, School of Medicine, King’s College London, London SE5 9RS, United Kingdom
Andreas L Koutsoumpas, Eirini I Rigopoulou, Dimitrios P Bogdanos, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Biopolis, 41110 Larissa, Greece
Lazaros I Sakkas, Department of Rheumatology, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Biopolis, 41110 Larissa, Greece
Dimitrios P Bogdanos, Cellular Immunotherapy and Molecular Immunodiagnostics, Biomedical Section, CEntre for REsearch and TEchnology Hellas (CE.R.T.H.)/Institute for REsearch and Technology-THessaly (I.RE.TE.TH), 60361 Thessaloniki, Greece
Received September 30, 2013; Revised November 25, 2013; Accepted December 5, 2013;
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the main cause of chronic gastritis and a major risk factor for gastric cancer. This pathogen has also been considered a potential trigger of gastric autoimmunity, and in particular of autoimmune gastritis. However, a considerable number of reports have attempted to link H. pylori infection with the development of extra-gastrointestinal autoimmune disorders, affecting organs not immediately relevant to the stomach. This review discusses the current evidence in support or against the role of H. pylori as a potential trigger of autoimmune rheumatic and skin diseases, as well as organ specific autoimmune diseases. We discuss epidemiological, serological, immunological and experimental evidence associating this pathogen with autoimmune diseases. Although over one hundred autoimmune diseases have been investigated in relation to H. pylori, we discuss a select number of papers with a larger literature base, and include Sjögrens syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, vasculitides, autoimmune skin conditions, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, autoimmune thyroid disease, multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica and autoimmune liver diseases. Specific mention is given to those studies reporting an association of anti-H. pylori antibodies with the presence of autoimmune disease-specific clinical parameters, as well as those failing to find such associations. We also provide helpful hints for future research.
Keywords: Autoimmunity, Helicobacter pylori, Infection, Gastritis, Mimicry, Rheumatology
Core tip: Multiple infectious agents have been implicated in the development of autoimmune disease. Helicobacter pylori is one pathogen which has been linked with multiple autoimmune diseases. This review will critically discuss a select few studies which have a larger evidence base, both in terms of positive and negative findings.
Autoimmune diseases arise from the interaction of genetic susceptibility and environmental exposures[1-4
]. Among environmental exposures, infectious triggers have been implicated and studied extensively[1,5
]. Infectious agents include bacteria, viruses and parasites, and may also consist of those organisms which comprise the normal flora[5
]. Several mechanisms by which infectious agents may cause autoimmune disease have been proposed[6,7
]. These include molecular mimicry[8-10
], epitope spreading, bystander effect[11,12
], microbial super-antigens, immune complex formation[13
], MHC class II expression on non-immune cells[14
], direct inflammatory damage[13
], high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon (IFN)-γ[10
], and T-regulatory/Th17 imbalance.
Among infectious agents implicated, Helicobacter pylori
) has received particular attention, in that it has been implicated in both organ specific and non-organ specific autoimmune disease[15
]. As gastric disease in relation to H. pylori
has been discussed extensively in multiple reviews and studies[16-18
], it will not be discussed in this review. Likewise, multiple other autoimmune conditions have been linked with H. pylori
, with evidence bases of varying content. In fact, amongst the autoimmune or autoimmune related diseases listed by AARDA (American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association, http://www.aarda.org/
), 95 have been studied sporadically or systematically in regard to their connection with H. pylori
, while among the remaining 61 there are no studies (yet) in Pubmed (search up to 29 September 2013) (Tables and ). Therefore, this review will discuss selected autoimmune conditions, both organ specific and non-organ specific, which have an evidence base (positive or negative) in relation to H. pylori
infection. Amongst the non-organ specific autoimmune disorders, we thoroughly discuss immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and autoimmune rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjögren syndrome (SjS), systemic sclerosis (SSc). Amongst the organ specific diseases linked with H. pylori
, autoimmune thyroid disease (AiTD), and multiple sclerosis (MS)/neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are discussed, as well as autoimmune liver diseases such as primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Although a wealth of literature is available for some conditions, we present selected papers that highlight the current findings, or lack thereof. It will become apparent that the evidence in support of H. pylori
as a cause of some autoimmune conditions varies from one condition to the next.
Autoimmune diseases or autoimmune disease-related disorders which have been studied for their possible (direct or indirect) relation with Helicobacter pylori infection
Autoimmune diseases or autoimmune diseases-related disorders which have not been studied for their possible (direct or indirect) relation with Helicobacter pylori infection
POTENTIAL MECHANISMS OF H. PYLORI-INDUCED AUTOIMMUNITY
Several mechanisms of pathogen-induced autoimmunity have been described in studies of H. pylori-
]. We briefly discuss some of these papers, starting with the study by Jackson and colleagues[20
]. These investigators found that chronic H. pylori
infection was associated with an increased risk of an elevated serum C-reactive protein, indicating an ongoing inflammatory state. This chronic inflammation may result in ongoing antigenic stimulation, and induces a systemic inflammatory response, and therefore extra-gastrointestinal disease[20
]. However, such hypotheses are not accompanied by solid experimental data. We need to emphasize that this, as well as most other studies investigating the role of H. pylori
, speculates rather than demonstrates a pathogenic role for this bacterium. Another study found that molecular mimicry of H. pylori
antigens activated cross-reactive T cells in autoimmune gastritis[21
]. H. pylori
components (especially urease) have been shown to activate B cells to produce IgM rheumatoid factor, anti-dsDNA, and anti-phospholipid choline antibodies[22
]. The former studies belong to those few (compared to the great majority of the studies) that to some extent provide a mechanistic approach as to how the pathogen can inflict loss of immunological tolerance, which is an important component for the initiation of antigen-driven autoimmunity. Similar mechanisms have been proposed in relation to heat shock protein (hsp) 60[23
]. Another piece of evidence which can support the major role of H. pylori
in the development of autoimmune diseases (and not just in the induction of autoantibodies) stems from studies on animal models of autoimmune diseases. Infection of male C57BL/6 mice with H. pylori
can induce a disease that resembles human PBC[24
]. However, most animal models of autoimmune diseases do not rely on H
infection for the induction of the disease or do not provide data to support that this pathogen is needed for disease development. Most of the mechanisms discussed in the literature remain as hypotheses that require more extensive investigation.
H. PYLORI AND AUTOIMMUNE RHEUMATIC DISORDERS
The pathogenetic evidence linking H. pylori with autoimmune rheumatic diseases varies amongst diseases. For example, while there are a reasonable number of studies investigating this topic in SjS, the data stemming from SLE are relatively few and inconsistent. There are several explanations that could account for the great variation in the number of the studies conducted amongst diseases. Some studies are rare and translational research is difficult to perform, as in for example the case of SSc. Other diseases do not have reliable animal models, and in these disorders it has been almost impossible to assess the role of infectious agents in the induction of autoimmunity. Also, for some diseases the prevailing idea amongst researchers has been that H. pylori is not an attractive etiologic agent, and this has prevented more research in this topic over the years. Nevertheless, epidemiological, serological and clinical studies have been performed to some extent and are reviewed herein.
SjS is an autoimmune condition characterized by lymphoid cell infiltration and destruction of exocrine glands[19
]. As lacrimal and salivary glands are most affected, a link with H. pylori
has been made given its prevalence in the oral cavity[19
], which may be associated with anti-H. pylori
Aragon et al[23
] found that 79.4% of SjS patients had anti-H. pylori
antibodies, and that 88.2% had anti-hsp60. This was significantly higher than other autoimmune controls (18.2% with anti-H. pylori
; 27.3% with anti-hsp60), and healthy controls (48.8% anti-H. pylori
; 37.2% anti-hsp60)[23
]. El Miedany et al[26
] failed to find statistically significant differences in the prevalence of anti-H. pylori
antibodies between patients with primary and secondary SjS (80.6% vs
71% for IgG, and 47.2% vs
38.7% for IgA, respectively). However, anti-H. pylori
antibodies were significantly less prevalent in patients with connective tissue disorders lacking sicca syndrome symptomatology (60.9% for IgG and 19.6% for IgM). The lowest prevalence of IgG and IgM anti-H. pylori
antibodies was found in normal controls (56.3% for IgG and 12.5% for IgM, respectively)[26
]. Similar results have been found in further studies[27
], but contradictory data have been provided in others[28
]. A study by the group of Theander[28
] examined the prevalence of H. pylori
in a Swedish cohort of 164 SjS patients, and found that 45% were seropositive for H. pylori
infection, including 23% with anti-CagA antibodies. However, these rates were lower than those seen in a control group of orthopedic outpatients without autoimmune conditions, and similar to rates found among healthy individuals[28
]. That group therefore concluded that H. pylori
infection was not linked with SjS[28
Some studies have attempted to link evidence of H. pylori
infection with clinical features of SjS. For example, El Miedany et al[26
] have found that there is a significant correlation between (IgG and IgM) anti-H. pylori
antibody seropositivity and the presence of primary and secondary SjS, as well as various clinical parameters. Logistic regression analysis has revealed that the presence of IgG anti-H. pylori
antibodies significantly correlates with age, disease duration and global score for disease status.
Another possible link between SjS and H. pylori
may be found in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas that may arise from chronic antigenic stimulation (i.e
., chronic infection and/or autoimmune disease). H. pylori
was detected in gastric tissue from MALT, and interestingly, there is an increased incidence of MALT lymphomas and marginal zone B cell neoplasms in SjS[29
]. It is possible that H. pylori
eradication in SjS may result in decreased incidence of MALT, as is the case for gastric MALT lymphomas[30-32
]. Further studies regarding the prevalence of H. pylori
in SjS in different populations are currently needed, in addition to monitoring for H. pylori
in at-risk individuals.
Sir James Paget was one of the very first to consider the possibility that what is now known as rheumatoid arthritis may indeed be caused by microbial infections. In 1853, Paget hypothesized that all diseases that manifest their symptoms symmetrically, such as “the deformities of chronic rheumatism”, must be blood-borne and could be caused by a demonstrable virus. H. pylori
has been considered one of the infectious agents linked to RA; however, the data do not support this. An increased incidence of peptic ulcer disease in RA patients is most likely related to the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs[33
]. Yamanishi et al[22
] found increased IgM rheumatoid factor in B cells chronically stimulated with H. pylori
urease. However, several studies demonstrated that there is a lower prevalence of H. pylori
in RA patients, and other studies found the prevalence of H. pylori
to be similar to that of the healthy controls[27,34,35
]. After H. pylori
eradication, no change in RA symptoms was reported by several studies[36-38
], although improvement was noted in others[39,40
]. Currently, the data are mixed regarding RA and H. pylori
, and it appears that the link is weak.
Systemic lupus erythematosus
prevalence has been studied in patients with SLE, but the results vary amongst reports. A recent study has failed to find significantly higher prevalence of anti-H. pylori
antibodies in SLE patients compared to controls[41
]. Of note, this study showed an increased prevalence of anti-H. pylori
antibodies in patients with anti-phospholipid syndrome, giant cell arteritis, SSc and PBC[41
]. Such findings have also been reported in the past. Kalabay et al[42
] have studied the prevalence of anti-H. pylori
antibodies in various autoimmune rheumatic diseases. These authors have found comparable prevalence of this pathogen in patients with SLE and healthy controls (57% vs
]. The highest prevalence of anti-H. pylori
antibodies was found in patients with undifferentiated connective tissue disorders (82%)[42
]. Of interest, an early study reported a negative association between H. pylori
seropositivity and the development of SLE in African-American women[43
]. In particular, female African-American patients with SLE had a lower prevalence of H. pylori
seropositivity compared to controls (38.1% vs
60.2%). That study also found that seronegative African-American females were more likely to develop SLE, and at an earlier age than their seropositive counterparts[43
]. Thus, the mean age of onset for SLE was 34.4 years in the seropositive group and 28 years in the seronegative group. These data suggest that either the presence of the pathogen confers protection from SLE or that the same mechanisms that make individuals prone to H. pylori
infection also promote the immune dysregulation which is necessary for SLE’s induction in African-American females.
Much like RA, the role of H. pylori
in SLE is also inconclusive. In an animal model, urease exposure induced anti-ssDNA antibody production[22
]. However, low anti-H. pylori
antibodies have been found in SLE patients, with levels comparable to healthy controls[27,43
]. Overall, the evidence does not support a role for H. pylori
in the development of SLE[44
Dysregulation of innate and adaptive (humoral and cellular) immunity plays an important role in the induction of SSc[45-47
]. The very low concordance rate for SSc in monozygotic twins has led investigators to consider that the pathogenesis of this disease rests more in the effect of environmental factors (including viruses and bacteria) rather than genetic influences[48
In a Japanese cohort of SSc patients, IgG antibodies against H. pylori
were found in 55.6% of the patients, a prevalence significantly higher compared to that in the control group[49
]. Another Japanese study found a similar prevalence of these antibodies (57.8%), and also a higher prevalence of reflux esophagitis amongst anti-H. pylori
antibody-positive patients compared to anti-H. pylori
]. Others have also noted an increased rate of H. pylori
infection in patients with SSc compared to controls[15,23,51,52
]. However, a significant number of studies has failed to find an increased prevalence of H. pylori
seropositivity compared to control groups, further indicating the lack of conclusive data regarding the extent by which H. pylori
confers susceptibility to SSc[53-56
Of clinical relevance, early data have indicated that H. pylori
eradication improves Raynaud’s phenomenon in patients with SSc[57,58
]. Another study has noted that skin involvement appears to be a predominant feature of H. pylori
-infected SSc patients compared to their seronegative counterparts. No other clinical parameters, including the distribution of sex, age, disease duration, autoantibody profile, estimated pulmonary artery systolic pressure, hemoglobin, ESR, renal and liver function indices were different between H. pylori
-infected or non-infected SSc patients[59
]. On the other hand, SSc patients with Barrett’s esophagus appear less likely to be H. pylori
-positive compared to SSc patients without Barrett’s esophagus (10% vs
42.5%). Such findings have underlined the potential protective role of H. pylori
for the development of Barrett’s esophagus[60
]. In pathophysiological terms, the results of the data discussed so far could be interpreted as follows: (1) H. pylori
-infected patients are more prone to develop SSc; (2) SSc patients are more susceptible to infection by H. pylori
, probably due to the disturbed gastrointestinal motility which is a characteristic feature of SSc; and (3) after the development of SSc (probably caused by reasons other than H pylori), infection with the pathogen protects the affected patients from unwanted complications (such as Barrett’s esophagus).
Danese et al[56
] have tackled the topic from another corner. While they failed to find a difference in the prevalence of the pathogen between SSc patients and controls, they reported that 90% of the H. pylori
-positive SSc patients were infected with the virulent CagA strain compared to just 37% of the non-CagA seropositive controls. Elevated levels of anti-hsp65 (but not of anti-hsp60) H. pylori
antibodies have been found in SSc patients compared to controls[42
Data on the potential link between H. pylori
and vasculitides are very limited. For example, we know very little about the role of this pathogen in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), formerly known as Wegener’s granulomatosis. A serological study has shown that anti-H. pylori
antibodies are more prevalent in GPA compared to controls[61
]. Such findings may be of biological significance as H. pylori
has been considered a potential trigger of vascular inflammation. Thus, the SS1 strain of H. pylori-
infected heterozygous low density-lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)+/- apoE apolipoprotein E (apoE)+/- mice develop autoimmune inflammation, platelet activation and atherosclerosis[62
]. A role for the pathogen in atherosclerosis and vasculitis has been suggested but there is no general agreement on this issue[63
]. A previous report was unable to identify significant differences in the rate of anti-H. pylori
antibodies between patients with GPA and control diseases[64
]. The study by Lidar et al[61
] failed to find any association between anti-H. pylori
antibody seropositivity in healthy controls and polyarteritis nodosa, microscopic polyangiitis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), also known as Churg Strauss syndrome, and giant cell arteritis[61
Another study reported disappearance of antiphospholipid syndrome after H. pylori
], but data are too limited on the issue to draw any conclusions.
IMMUNE-MEDIATED SKIN DISORDERS
infection has been considered a potential inducer of several immune-mediated skin disorders. These disorders can be manifestations of systemic vasculitides (Behçet’s disease) or may be related to skin disorders with presumed autoimmune origin (psoriasis, alopecia areata, lichen planus, etc
.). Due to space constraints, this review will discuss the role of H. pylori
in selected skin disorders including psoriasis, alopecia areata and Behçet’s disease. Other skin disorders linked to H. pylori
include, amongst others, atopic dermatitis, chronic or nodular prurigo, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, rosacea, chronic urticaria, lichen planus, and Sweet’s syndrome, and are reviewed elsewhere[66
]. We will also discuss the link between H. pylori
and chronic urticaria, as a plethora of data have been obtained and the outcomes of these studies are extremely helpful for the understanding of the interactions between the pathogen and the host.
Psoriasis affects 1%-3% of Caucasians. The etiology of the disease remains poorly understood, although immune-mediated mechanisms appear to play a significant role in the development of the disease, including exposure to particular pathogens.
To this end, several studies have investigated a possible link between H. pylori
antibodies have been reported to be more prevalent in psoriatic patients compared to controls. For example, Qayoom et al[72
] have reported that 40% of psoriatic patients and only 10% of healthy controls (all without known upper gastrointestinal symptoms) had anti-H. pylori
antibodies. However, other studies have failed to find any difference in the prevalence of H. pylori
A large study from Turkey, investigating 300 psoriatic patients and 150 controls, has reported comparable prevalence of H. pylori
infection in patients and controls. However, the same study suggested that H. pylori
status relates to clinical parameters[75
], as it was able to show that patients lacking H. pylori
had less severe psoriatic disease compared to the seropositive cases. Also, all patients with moderate or severe psoriasis were H. pylori-
positive. Intriguingly, patients treated for both psoriasis (with acitretin) and for H. pylori
(eradication therapy) showed more rapid improvement of the skin disease, compared to those treated with acitretin only. Notably, psoriasis was also improved in patients receiving only eradication treatment[75
]. This study confirmed anecdotal reports or case studies showing that eradication therapy improves psoriasis[73,76
Strains of H. pylori
that express the cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) have been associated with a more virulent disease and are believed to play an important role in the clinical outcome of the infection. Several authors have considered that links between the pathogen and autoimmunity may differ in accordance to the virulence of the infecting strain. This has also been the case for H. pylori
and psoriasis. To this end, Daudén et al[68
] were unable to find any difference in terms of CagA seropositivity between psoriatic patients and patients with non-ulcer dysplasia (54.5% vs
The pathogenic role of H. pylori
infection has been extensively studied in chronic urticaria. Though this disease cannot be considered a typical autoimmune disease, it is of interest to discuss the findings provided so far, as these may help us understand the role of this pathogen in the development of immune-mediated pathologies. Investigations have not been limited to the prevalence of infection[66
], but have been extended to include the role of eradication therapy in the clinical course of chronic urticaria[77-86
]. Selected papers give us an insight into the extent by which the pathogen and its eradication influence the clinical outcome of the disease. For example, recurrence of urticaria following re-infection by H. pylori
has been reported[87
]. On the other hand, chronic urticaria has also been described upon administration of eradication therapy for H. pylori
]. Nevertheless, some patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria are resistant to conventional doses of antihistamine medications. A subgroup of those (approximately 28%) receiving both eradication therapy and antihistamines show significant decrease of the Urticaria Activity Score and complete loss of their urticaria symptoms, suggesting that treatment for H. pylori
makes these patients less resistant to antihistamines[77
]. These findings are in agreement with other studies reporting an overall improvement of chronic urticaria following administration of eradication therapy for H. pylori
]. Other studies have failed to find any relationship between eradication therapy and clinical phenotypes[91
]. Of interest, a recent comprehensive review utilized the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach to analyze and determine the quality of evidence for this proposed therapy. Their analysis has included 10 trials showing a benefit and 9 trials failing to report a benefit of H. pylori
eradication therapy. This analysis reached the conclusion that the evidence provided so far that H. pylori
eradication leads to improvement of chronic urticaria outcomes is weak and conflicting. Negative studies showing no benefit in the course of chronic urticaria also led to an overall very low grade of confidence. H. pylori
virulent genotypes in the urticaria patients do not appear to affect the clinical course of the disease[92
The role of H. pylori
infection in Behçet’s disease (BeD) remains controversial[93-95
]. Most studies originate from Turkey, a country with a high incidence of BeD. Avci et al[95
] have failed to find an association between H. pylori
and BeD. Other studies published in the form of abstracts or in Turkish journals have published inconsistent results reporting comparable or higher prevalence rates of H. pylori
infection in patients with BeD[93
]. One study also from Turkey reported an increased seropositivity of H. pylori
cytotoxin-associated gene-A in patients with BeD[96
Improvement of BeD features in patients receiving eradication therapy has also been reported[95
], and includes improvements in the cutaneous lesions, arthritis/arthralgia and oral or genital ulcers. The limited number of studies prevents safe conclusions as to the potential links.
AA is an immune-mediated disorder characterized by hair loss. The disease affects all ethnic groups, ages, and both sexes. Attempts to investigate the role of H. pylori
in this disease have been very few and led to inconclusive results[97,98
]. Seroprevalence rates of H. pylori
infection in patients with AA are increased or not compared to controls[97,99
]. Eradication of H. pylori
in AA has also been proposed[100
], but not studied extensively.
IMMUNE THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA
ITP may occur by itself (idiopathically) or secondary to another condition, including autoimmune conditions (namely AiTD, SLE, anti-phospholipid syndrome). Although the prevalence of H. pylori
in ITP patients has been found to be similar to controls[101
], improvements in platelet counts following H. pylori
eradication have been reported[102-107
]. Suzuki et al[106
] reported that the platelet response was more pronounced in those patients with the CagA-positive H. pylori
strain. Interestingly, anti-CagA antibodies cross-react with peptides expressed on platelets of ITP patients[108
]. These findings have led to the suggestion of eradication of H. pylori
for the treatment of ITP[109
]. Takahashi et al[110
] reported that platelet-associated IgG declined after H. pylori
eradication, as did molecular mimicry with the CagA region. In that study, H. pylori
was found in 75% (15 of 20 patients) of ITP patients of Japanese descent, and eradicated in 87% (13 of 15)[110
]. Increased platelet count was observed in 54% (7 of 13) of patients within four months of eradication[110
]. Over a dozen other studies have also indicated an improvement in platelet count following H. pylori
eradication, and are well-reviewed by Hernando-Harder and colleagues[66
]. Platelet eluates from 12 ITP patients recognized H. pylori
CagA, although it should be noted that three of the 12 patients were seronegative for H. pylori
]. Levels of anti-CagA antibodies declined in three patients following H. pylori
eradication. This latter result suggested a role for cross-reactivity and molecular mimicry[110
The role of molecular mimicry and cross reactivity between H. pylori
components and self-peptides is not new, as antibodies against the H/K-ATPase in the gastric mucosa have been found to be generated via
molecular mimicry with H. pylori
in atrophic gastritis[111
]. Molecular mimicry has been considered a mechanism that could explain other H. pylori
-induced autoimmune phenomena, but very few studies have addressed this in an experimental way. The role of CagA strains is also under investigation in other conditions[112,113
AUTOIMMUNE THYROID DISEASE
A larger amount of data links H. pylori
infection with AiTD, and in particular with Graves’ disease[114
]. Bassi and colleagues[115
] aimed to correlate the CagA strain of H. pylori
with AiTD by investigating 112 consecutive patients at first diagnosis of AiTD. Those researchers tested for H. pylori
in stool samples (to confirm ongoing infection), and CagA in serum samples. H. pylori
and Graves’ disease were associated (83.7% patients were H. pylori
seropositive). No association was found with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis[115
]. Most patients (89.2%) seropositive for H. pylori
were infected with the CagA strain[115
]. This was in accordance with a previous study by the same group[116
]. Negative findings in regard to Hashimoto’s were reported in other studies[103,117
], while some reported a positive association[114,118,119
Cross-reactivity between bacterial and thyroid antigens has been proposed as a mechanism in H. pylori
]. Indeed, amino acid sequence similarities between CagA H. pylori
and thyroid peroxidase have been reported[121
], and one group described a reduction in thyroid autoantibodies following H. pylori
]. Larizza et al[123
] suggests that H. pylori
may induce or worsen Graves’ disease in patients carrying HLA-DRB10301, and further suggested eradication in certain risk groups. These findings do suggest a possible causative link between the CagA strain of H. pylori
and the development of Graves’ disease, but deserve further research. It should be noted that AiTDs are often found concomitantly with other autoimmune conditions, and that the link between the pathogen and autoimmune thyroiditis may indeed reflect a potential contribution of H. pylori
in the simultaneous induction of multiple autoimmune diseases in susceptible individuals[124
]. The exact mechanisms by which exposure to a microbe elicit more than one autoimmune manifestations are not well defined but cross-reactive responses against a microbial mimic and several self-antigens have been documented[125-127
], and may account for this. The reverse is also possible, whereby an autoepitope is cross-reactively targeted by several unrelated microbial mimics in a “multiple hit” scenario[128,129
MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS AND NEUROMYELITIS OPTICA
infection has been considered the likely trigger of various neurological disorders of the central nervous system including MS/NMO, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, seizure disorders, cerebrovascular diseases, mild cognitive impairment, migraine and ophthalmic disorders, as reviewed elsewhere[130
]. A large amount of data has been reported regarding H. pylori
and MS/NMO. A recent study by Long et al[131
] determined H. pylori
infection status in a cohort of 2 NMO patients, 17 at high risk of NMO, 42 MS and 27 healthy controls. H. pylori
antibodies were found in 90.4% NMO, 95.8% high-risk NMO, 73.8% MS, and 59.3% controls[131
]. There was no statistically significant difference between the MS and control group (P
]. Interestingly, 93% of patients with aquaporin-4 antibodies were also seropositive for H. pylori
]. Yoshimura et al[132
] analyzed 116 NMO patients for various antibodies to infectious agents, as well as for seropositivity for aquaporin-4 antibodies. They found that H. pylori
infection was associated with anti-aquaporin-4 antibody positivity[132
]. Similar findings were also reported in other studies[133-135
Several studies found a lower prevalence of H. pylori
amongst MS patients compared to controls. Mohebi and colleagues noted a lower prevalence of H. pylori
in a cohort of MS patients[136
], in a study which analyzed 163 MS patients and 150 controls for anti-H. pylori
IgG and IgM. Seropositive H. pylori
patients had a lower MS incidence and fewer neurological complications[136
]. Wender also noted a lower anti-H. pylori
prevalence in MS vs
]. Li et al[138
] evaluated 105 MS patients and 85 controls for antibodies against H. pylori
in sera. The MS group was sub-divided into 52 opticospinal MS and 53 conventional MS. In the conventional MS group, 22.6% of patients were positive for anti-H. pylori
, compared to 51.9% of opticospinal MS and 42.4% of controls[138
]. These data suggest a potential link between NMO and H. pylori
, although this does not appear to be the case in MS.
AUTOIMMUNE LIVER DISEASES
species, including H. hepaticus
, H. pullorum
and H. billis
, are more bile-tolerant compared to H. pylori
, and can survive in very low concentrations in human bile[139
]. This finding has prompted investigators to consider that Helicobacter
species other than H. pylori
are potential inducers of hepatocyte and biliary epithelia cell autoimmunity. Nevertheless, studies have addressed the role of H. pylori
in autoimmune liver diseases, and provided interesting data.
The role of H. pylori has been studied mainly in PBC, an autoimmune cholestatic liver disease characterized by the immune-mediated destruction of small intrahepatic bile ducts. Some studies have also been conducted in PSC, another autoimmune cholestatic disease affecting the larger bile ducts. Studies on the role of this pathogen in the induction of AIH, an autoimmune liver disease affecting hepatocytes, are very limited.
Primary Biliary Cirrhosis
Tanaka et al[140
] have failed to detect H. pylori
in liver tissues from patients with PBC. Others have been able to detect H. pylori
in PBC livers, although this was in a minority of samples tested[140
Researchers have assessed the seroprevalence of H. pylori
in PBC and identified significant differences amongst patients and controls[15
]. For example, Shapira et al[41
] reported anti-H. pylori
antibodies in 54% of patients with PBC compared to 31% (P
< 0.01) of patients with other conditions, while Tanaka et al[140
] have failed to find any differences between patients and demographically-matched controls (51% vs
Our group has assessed the role of molecular mimicry between H. pylori
and PBC-specific autoantigens and identified through database searches a significant amino acid sequence similarity between the major mitochondrial autoepitopic region from pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E2 subunit and urease beta of H
]. However, we have failed to find any evidence of immunological cross-reactivity at the B-cell level[141
]. We also tested the identified mimics as targets of CD4 T-cell responses, and we did not find any significant T-cell recognition[142
]. In a subsequent study, we investigated the potential role of cross-reactive antibodies against H. pylori
VacA antigen and human PDC-E2, but the results were also negative, clearly demonstrating that these two H. pylori
antigens are unlikely candidates as cross-reactive targets in molecular mimicry mechanisms involved in PBC[143
Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis
An early study in Scandinavian PSC patients indicated detectable H. pylori
DNA in livers from patients with PSC and other liver diseases[140
]. This has promoted a series of subsequent studies investigating the role of Helicobacter
species in PSC and other autoimmune liver diseases. Krasinskas et al[144
] detected Helicobacter
DNA in 9 of 56 (16%) PSC patients by 16SrRNA PCR, including 7 (12.5% of the total), in whom there was evidence of H. pylori
CagA by PCR. Recent PCR analyses have indicated that H. pylori
or other Helicobacter
species can be detected in up to 13% of liver tissue specimens from pediatric patients with autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis (an autoimmune form of PSC firstly noted in children) and AIH[145
]. The same authors detected in the past H. pylori
(but not other Helicobacter
species) in liver tissues from PBC and adult PSC patients[140
As PSC patients frequently suffer from ulcerative colitis, it has been hypothesized that alteration in the gut flora due to UC-related intestinal inflammation may promote gut translocation of Helicobacter
to the liver. Gut translocation of pathogens appears an attractive mechanism for the induction of liver autoimmunity and there are some data in support of its validity[146,147
The prevalence of anti-H. pylori
antibodies does not differ between pediatric PSC patients (6.6%) and controls (4%-10% depending on the age)[145
]. In fact, an increased prevalence of antibodies against non-gastric anti-H. pylori
antibodies has been noted in patients with autoimmune liver diseases[148
The prevalence of anti-H. pylori
antibodies does not appear to differ between patients with AIH (pediatric or adult) and controls[149-151
]. Also, H. pylori
DNA can be found in a minority of liver tissue samples from patients with AIH with no difference between patients and controls. Currently, there is insufficient evidence to link H. pylori
UNMET CHALLENGES AND EXPERIMENTAL DOWNSIDES
The role of infectious agents in the development of autoimmune disease has been studied extensively. H. pylori is included among those organisms that have been investigated, although findings vary from one condition to the next. Large amounts of data suggest a plausible link with AiTD, NMO, ITP and psoriasis. Less evidence is present regarding RA, SLE, BeD, PBC, AIH and MS. There is inconclusive evidence regarding SjS, SSc, PSC and AA. Table gives an overview of the major findings in support or against the implication of H. pylori in the development of these diseases.
Evidence in support or against the role of Helicobacter pylori in autoimmune disease
Idiopathic diseases with an autoimmune component have been the focus of investigation in regard to the role of H. pylori
. For example, an autoimmune form of idiopathic dysrhythmias has been linked specifically with CagA and VacA-positive H. pylori
]. This indicated the potential of the pathogen to be linked with conditions now considered “idiopathic”. Also, parasitic diseases such as the Trypanosma cruzi
-induced Chagas disease need to be revisited, especially under recent developments showing not only that a proportion of these patients present with autoimmune features but also because such patients are also co-infected with H. pylori
]. In addition, other conditions that are now considered to be autoimmune (such as chronic fatigue syndrome) have not been evaluated for H. pylori
H. pylori is one of the very few infectious agents (along, for example, with Epstein-Barr virus) that have been considered a common denominator in more than 30 autoimmune disorders (Figure ). Most research in this area has been limited to serological studies investigating two main topics: first, the prevalence of H. pylori in the disease under investigation vs the control groups; and second, the extent by which H. pylori eradication improves the symptomatology of the patients. However, both approaches suffer from conceptual and design constraints. For example, serological studies investigating the prevalence of anti-H. pylori antibodies in patients and controls have so far provided discrepancies. Demographic details which are known to affect H. pylori status must also be taken into account in cohort selection. This approach will help us to understand whether H. pylori infection predisposes to (or protects from) the development of specific autoimmune diseases. Also, the fact that the prevalence of H. pylori infection does not differ amongst diseases and control groups does not necessarily mean that this pathogen does not play an important role in the development of immune-mediated disease. Thus, several investigators have considered that it is not the infection per se but the ability of susceptible individuals to mount an immune response against hsps or other immunologically-important H. pylori antigens that plays a permissive role in the loss of immunological tolerance to self-antigens. A possibility also exists that the pathogen exerts its pathogenic effects in a “hit-a-run” scenario, (i.e., long after the inflammation caused by the original infection). This could make it almost impossible to link the disease with the microbe in biological material from individuals already suffering from the disease and its unwanted complications. Longitudinal studies enrolling patients at very early stages of the disease may help us to address this issue. For example, relevant autoantibodies may appear years before clinical manifestations of RA or SLE present. Researchers must also take into account reports indicating that infection with this pathogen may indeed confer protection rather than susceptibility to the development of autoimmunity.
A “multiple hit” molecular mimicry mechanism involving microbial mimics originated from Helicobacter pylori and other microbes linked with primary biliary cirrhosis. The major autoepitope of primary biliary cirrhosis-specific anti-mitochondrial antibodies (PDC-E2, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex) shares amino acid similarities with 4 microbial mimics from Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), N. aromaticivorans, L. delbrueckii[155,156], and E. coli[140,157,158]. The working hypothesis is that exposure of susceptible individuals to infections caused by these microbial agents will initiate humoral and cellular immune responses against microbial epitopes (in our case, these will be those sharing similarity with the self-epitope). Antibodies or T-cells against the microbial mimics may then cross-react with the human autoepitope initiating an autoreactive immune response which could lead to the induction of cellular damage and the perpetuation of autoimmunity (and can cause autoimmune disease). Experimental data so far provided demonstrate the existence of cross-reactive responses between self and microbial peptides from E. coli, N. amoraticivorans, and L. delbrueckii. However, experimental testing has shown that the H. pylori mimic (from urease beta) is not a target of cross-reactive responses specifically present in primary biliary cirrhosis. The prevailing notion is that the mimic from H. pylori does not share amino acid similarity to an extent that could initiate cross-reactive response. On the contrary, the other microbial mimics have sufficient homologies with the human autoepitope and can promote molecular mimicry-based immune responses against self.
Another topic which needs to be addressed is that the eradication of other autoimmune disease-relevant microbial agents is responsible for the improvement of symptoms of the patients receiving eradication therapy for H. pylori
. In addition, H. pylori
eradication may alter the microbiome status of the infected individuals, possibly promoting the persistence of potent infectious inducers of autoimmunity[5
]. An immunosuppressive effect of medication may be another possibility. These hypotheses need to be addressed experimentally. Also, work on animal models of diseases and the role of infection with this pathogen are scarce. It is therefore apparent that the role of H. pylori
in the development of autoimmune disease needs further research, as positive findings may indicate the need for eradication of the pathogen to alter the clinical course, or prevent autoimmune disease in those at risk.
In conclusion, H. pylori remains one of the most attractive candidate pathogens that could trigger autoimmunity. The ubiquitous nature of this pathogen may explain why it has been implicated in a large number of autoimmune conditions. There is no doubt that more basic work in immunological aspects of the microbial-host interactions is needed to address the pathogenic role of this multi-faceted pathogen.
Smyk D, Rigopoulou EI, Baum H, Burroughs AK, Vergani D, Bogdanos DP. Autoimmunity and environment: am I at risk?. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol.
Shoenfeld Y, Blank M, Abu-Shakra M, Amital H, Barzilai O, Berkun Y, Bizzaro N, Gilburd B, Zandman-Goddard G, Katz U. The mosaic of autoimmunity: prediction, autoantibodies, and therapy in autoimmune diseases--2008. Isr Med Assoc J.
Shoenfeld Y, Gilburd B, Abu-Shakra M, Amital H, Barzilai O, Berkun Y, Blank M, Zandman-Goddard G, Katz U, Krause I. The mosaic of autoimmunity: genetic factors involved in autoimmune diseases--2008. Isr Med Assoc J.
Shoenfeld Y, Zandman-Goddard G, Stojanovich L, Cutolo M, Amital H, Levy Y, Abu-Shakra M, Barzilai O, Berkun Y, Blank M. The mosaic of autoimmunity: hormonal and environmental factors involved in autoimmune diseases--2008. Isr Med Assoc J.
Bogdanos DP, Smyk DS, Invernizzi P, Rigopoulou EI, Blank M, Pouria S, Shoenfeld Y. Infectome: a platform to trace infectious triggers of autoimmunity. Autoimmun Rev.
Bach JF. Infections and autoimmune diseases. J Autoimmun.
Getts MT, Miller SD. 99th Dahlem conference on infection, inflammation and chronic inflammatory disorders: triggering of autoimmune diseases by infections. Clin Exp Immunol.
Fujinami RS, von Herrath MG, Christen U, Whitton JL. Molecular mimicry, bystander activation, or viral persistence: infections and autoimmune disease. Clin Microbiol Rev.
Olson JK, Ercolini AM, Miller SD. A virus-induced molecular mimicry model of multiple sclerosis. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol.
Vial T, Descotes J. Autoimmune diseases and vaccinations. Eur J Dermatol.
McCoy L, Tsunoda I, Fujinami RS. Multiple sclerosis and virus induced immune responses: autoimmunity can be primed by molecular mimicry and augmented by bystander activation. Autoimmunity.
Röner S, Zinser E, Menges M, Wiethe C, Littmann L, Hänig J, Steinkasserer A, Lutz MB. Minor role of bystander tolerance to fetal calf serum in a peptide-specific dendritic cell vaccine model against autoimmunity: comparison with serum-free cultures. J Immunother.
Ram M, Shoenfeld Y. Hepatitis B: infection, vaccination and autoimmunity. Isr Med Assoc J.
Ravel G, Christ M, Horand F, Descotes J. Autoimmunity, environmental exposure and vaccination: is there a link?. Toxicology.
Ram M, Barzilai O, Shapira Y, Anaya JM, Tincani A, Stojanovich L, Bombardieri S, Bizzaro N, Kivity S, Agmon Levin N. Helicobacter pylori serology in autoimmune diseases - fact or fiction?. Clin Chem Lab Med.
Erdoğan A, Yilmaz U. Is there a relationship between Helicobacter pylori and gastric autoimmunity?. Turk J Gastroenterol.
Veijola LI, Oksanen AM, Sipponen PI, Rautelin HI. Association of autoimmune type atrophic corpus gastritis with Helicobacter pylori infection. World J Gastroenterol.
Oksanen AM, Haimila KE, Rautelin HI, Partanen JA. Immunogenetic characteristics of patients with autoimmune gastritis. World J Gastroenterol.
Hasni S, Ippolito A, Illei GG. Helicobacter pylori and autoimmune diseases. Oral Dis.
Jackson L, Britton J, Lewis SA, McKeever TM, Atherton J, Fullerton D, Fogarty AW. A population-based epidemiologic study of Helicobacter pylori infection and its association with systemic inflammation. Helicobacter.
Amedei A, Bergman MP, Appelmelk BJ, Azzurri A, Benagiano M, Tamburini C, van der Zee R, Telford JL, Vandenbroucke-Grauls CM, D’Elios MM. Molecular mimicry between Helicobacter pylori antigens and H+, K+ --adenosine triphosphatase in human gastric autoimmunity. J Exp Med.
Yamanishi S, Iizumi T, Watanabe E, Shimizu M, Kamiya S, Nagata K, Kumagai Y, Fukunaga Y, Takahashi H. Implications for induction of autoimmunity via activation of B-1 cells by Helicobacter pylori urease. Infect Immun.
Aragona P, Magazzù G, Macchia G, Bartolone S, Di Pasquale G, Vitali C, Ferreri G. Presence of antibodies against Helicobacter pylori and its heat-shock protein 60 in the serum of patients with Sjögren’s syndrome. J Rheumatol.
Goo MJ, Ki MR, Lee HR, Hong IH, Park JK, Yang HJ, Yuan DW, Hwang OK, Do SH, Yoo SE. Primary biliary cirrhosis, similar to that in human beings, in a male C57BL/6 mouse infected with Helicobacter pylori. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol.
Bürgers R, Schneider-Brachert W, Reischl U, Behr A, Hiller KA, Lehn N, Schmalz G, Ruhl S. Helicobacter pylori in human oral cavity and stomach. Eur J Oral Sci.
El Miedany YM, Baddour M, Ahmed I, Fahmy H. Sjogren’s syndrome: concomitant H. pylori infection and possible correlation with clinical parameters. Joint Bone Spine.
Showji Y, Nozawa R, Sato K, Suzuki H. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with connective tissue diseases. Microbiol Immunol.
Theander E, Nilsson I, Manthorpe R, Jacobsson LT, Wadström T. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori in primary Sjögren’s syndrome. Clin Exp Rheumatol.
Royer B, Cazals-Hatem D, Sibilia J, Agbalika F, Cayuela JM, Soussi T, Maloisel F, Clauvel JP, Brouet JC, Mariette X. Lymphomas in patients with Sjogren’s syndrome are marginal zone B-cell neoplasms, arise in diverse extranodal and nodal sites, and are not associated with viruses. Blood.
Iwai H, Nakamichi N, Nakae K, Konishi M, Inaba M, Hoshino S, Baba S, Amakawa R. Parotid mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma regression after Helicobacter pylori eradication. Laryngoscope.
Parsonnet J, Hansen S, Rodriguez L, Gelb AB, Warnke RA, Jellum E, Orentreich N, Vogelman JH, Friedman GD. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric lymphoma. N Engl J Med.
Suchy BH, Wolf SR. Bilateral mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the parotid gland. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg.
Janssen M, Dijkmans BA, van der Sluys FA, van der Wielen JG, Havenga K, Vandenbroucke JP, Lamers CB, Zwinderman AH, Cats A. Upper gastrointestinal complaints and complications in chronic rheumatic patients in comparison with other chronic diseases. Br J Rheumatol.
Meron MK, Amital H, Shepshelovich D, Barzilai O, Ram M, Anaya JM, Gerli R, Nicola B, Shoenfeld Y. Infectious aspects and the etiopathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol.
Tanaka E, Singh G, Saito A, Syouji A, Yamada T, Urano W, Nakajima A, Taniguchi A, Tomatsu T, Hara M. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and risk of upper gastrointestinal ulcer in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in Japan. Mod Rheumatol.
Ishikawa N, Fuchigami T, Matsumoto T, Kobayashi H, Sakai Y, Tabata H, Takubo N, Yamamoto S, Nakanishi M, Tomioka K. Helicobacter pylori infection in rheumatoid arthritis: effect of drugs on prevalence and correlation with gastroduodenal lesions. Rheumatology (Oxford).
Matsukawa Y, Asai Y, Kitamura N, Sawada S, Kurosaka H. Exacerbation of rheumatoid arthritis following Helicobacter pylori eradication: disruption of established oral tolerance against heat shock protein?. Med Hypotheses.
Steen KS, Lems WF, Visman IM, de Koning MH, van de Stadt RJ, Twisk JW, de Leest HT, Dijkmans BA, Nurmohamed MT. The effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on C-reactive protein and the lipid profile in patients with rheumatoid arthritis using chronic NSAIDs. Clin Exp Rheumatol.
Seriolo B, Cutolo M, Zentilin P, Savarino V. Helicobacter pylori infection in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol.
Zentilin P, Seriolo B, Dulbecco P, Caratto E, Iiritano E, Fasciolo D, Bilardi C, Mansi C, Testa E, Savarino V. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori may reduce disease severity in rheumatoid arthritis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther.
Shapira Y, Agmon-Levin N, Renaudineau Y, Porat-Katz BS, Barzilai O, Ram M, Youinou P, Shoenfeld Y. Serum markers of infections in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis: evidence of infection burden. Exp Mol Pathol.
Kalabay L, Fekete B, Czirják L, Horváth L, Daha MR, Veres A, Fónyad G, Horváth A, Viczián A, Singh M. Helicobacter pylori infection in connective tissue disorders is associated with high levels of antibodies to mycobacterial hsp65 but not to human hsp60. Helicobacter.
Sawalha AH, Schmid WR, Binder SR, Bacino DK, Harley JB. Association between systemic lupus erythematosus and Helicobacter pylori seronegativity. J Rheumatol.
Matsukawa Y. Association between systemic lupus erythematosus and Helicobacter pylori. J Rheumatol.
Sakkas LI, Chikanza IC, Platsoucas CD. Mechanisms of Disease: the role of immune cells in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis. Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol.
Sakkas LI. New developments in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis. Autoimmunity.
Sakkas LI, Xu B, Artlett CM, Lu S, Jimenez SA, Platsoucas CD. Oligoclonal T cell expansion in the skin of patients with systemic sclerosis. J Immunol.
Bogdanos DP, Smyk DS, Rigopoulou EI, Mytilinaiou MG, Heneghan MA, Selmi C, Gershwin ME. Twin studies in autoimmune disease: genetics, gender and environment. J Autoimmun.
Yazawa N, Fujimoto M, Kikuchi K, Kubo M, Ihn H, Sato S, Tamaki T, Tamaki K. High seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with systemic sclerosis: association with esophageal involvement. J Rheumatol.
Yamaguchi K, Iwakiri R, Hara M, Kikkawa A, Fujise T, Ootani H, Shimoda R, Tsunada S, Sakata H, Ushiyama O. Reflux esophagitis and Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with scleroderma. Intern Med.
Farina G, Rosato E, Francia C, Proietti M, Donato G, Ammendolea C, Pisarri S, Salsano F. High incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with systemic sclerosis: association with Sicca Syndrome. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol.
Kountouras J, Zavos C, Gavalas E, Deretzi G, Katsinelos P, Boura P, Polyzos SA, Venizelos I. Helicobacter pylori may be a common denominator associated with systemic and multiple sclerosis. Joint Bone Spine.
:222-323; author reply 223.[PubMed]
Savarino V, Sulli A, Zentilin P, Raffaella Mele M, Cutolo M. No evidence of an association between Helicobacter pylori infection and Raynaud phenomenon. Scand J Gastroenterol.
Sulli A, Seriolo B, Savarino V, Cutolo M. Lack of correlation between gastric Helicobacter pylori infection and primary or secondary Raynaud’s phenomenon in patients with systemic sclerosis. J Rheumatol.
Hervé F, Cailleux N, Benhamou Y, Ducrotté P, Lemeland JF, Denis P, Marie I, Lévesque H. [Helicobacter pylori prevalence in Raynaud’s disease]. Rev Med Interne.
Danese S, Zoli A, Cremonini F, Gasbarrini A. High prevalence of Helicobacter pylori type I virulent strains in patients with systemic sclerosis. J Rheumatol.
Gasbarrini A, Massari I, Serricchio M, Tondi P, De Luca A, Franceschi F, Ojetti V, Dal Lago A, Flore R, Santoliquido A. Helicobacter pylori eradication ameliorates primary Raynaud’s phenomenon. Dig Dis Sci.
Csiki Z, Gál I, Sebesi J, Szegedi G. [Raynaud syndrome and eradication of Helicobacter pylori]. Orv Hetil.
Radić M, Kaliterna DM, Bonacin D, Vergles JM, Radić J, Fabijanić D, Kovačić V. Is Helicobacter pylori infection a risk factor for disease severity in systemic sclerosis?. Rheumatol Int.
Wipff J, Allanore Y, Soussi F, Terris B, Abitbol V, Raymond J, Chaussade S, Kahan A. Prevalence of Barrett’s esophagus in systemic sclerosis. Arthritis Rheum.
Lidar M, Lipschitz N, Langevitz P, Barzilai O, Ram M, Porat-Katz BS, Pagnoux C, Guilpain P, Sinico RA, Radice A. Infectious serologies and autoantibodies in Wegener’s granulomatosis and other vasculitides: novel associations disclosed using the Rad BioPlex 2200. Ann N Y Acad Sci.
Shen L, Matsunami Y, Quan N, Kobayashi K, Matsuura E, Oguma K. In vivo oxidation, platelet activation and simultaneous occurrence of natural immunity in atherosclerosis-prone mice. Isr Med Assoc J.
Oshima T, Ozono R, Yano Y, Oishi Y, Teragawa H, Higashi Y, Yoshizumi M, Kambe M. Association of Helicobacter pylori infection with systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in healthy male subjects. J Am Coll Cardiol.
Zycinska K, Wardyn KA, Zycinski Z, Smolarczyk R. Correlation between Helicobacter pylori infection and pulmonary Wegener’s granulomacytosis activity. J Physiol Pharmacol.
2008;59 Suppl 6
Cicconi V, Carloni E, Franceschi F, Nocente R, Silveri NG, Manna R, Servidei S, Bentivoglio AR, Gasbarrini A, Gasbarrini G. Disappearance of antiphospholipid antibodies syndrome after Helicobacter pylori eradication. Am J Med.
Hernando-harder AC, Booken N, Goerdt S, Singer MV, Harder H. Helicobacter pylori infection and dermatologic diseases. Eur J Dermatol.
Halasz CL. Helicobacter pylori antibodies in patients with psoriasis. Arch Dermatol.
Daudén E, Cabrera MM, Oñate MJ, Pajares JM, García-Díez A. CagA seropositivity in Helicobacter pylori positive patients with psoriasis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol.
Daudén E, Vázquez-Carrasco MA, Peñas PF, Pajares JM, García-Díez A. Association of Helicobacter pylori infection with psoriasis and lichen planus: prevalence and effect of eradication therapy. Arch Dermatol.
Wedi B, Kapp A. Helicobacter pylori infection in skin diseases: a critical appraisal. Am J Clin Dermatol.
Wedi B, Kapp A. Helicobacter pylori infection and skin diseases. J Physiol Pharmacol.
Qayoom S, Ahmad QM. Psoriasis and Helicobacter pylori. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol.
Ali M, Whitehead M. Clearance of chronic psoriasis after eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol.
Sáez-Rodríguez M, Noda-Cabrera A, García-Bustínduy M, Guimerá-Martín-Neda F, Dorta-Alom S, Escoda-García M, Fagundo-González E, Sánchez-González R, Rodríguez-García F, García-Montelongo R. Palmoplantar pustulosis associated with gastric Helicobacter pylori infection. Clin Exp Dermatol.
Onsun N, Arda Ulusal H, Su O, Beycan I, Biyik Ozkaya D, Senocak M. Impact of Helicobacter pylori infection on severity of psoriasis and response to treatment. Eur J Dermatol.
Martin Hübner A, Tenbaum SP. Complete remission of palmoplantar psoriasis through Helicobacter pylori eradication: a case report. Clin Exp Dermatol.
Magen E, Mishal J. Possible benefit from treatment of Helicobacter pylori in antihistamine-resistant chronic urticaria. Clin Exp Dermatol.
Magen E, Mishal J, Schlesinger M, Scharf S. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection equally improves chronic urticaria with positive and negative autologous serum skin test. Helicobacter.
Magen E, Schlesinger M, Hadari I. Chronic urticaria can be triggered by eradication of Helicobacter pylori. Helicobacter.
Shakouri A, Compalati E, Lang DM, Khan DA. Effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori eradication in chronic urticaria: evidence-based analysis using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol.
Federman DG, Kirsner RS, Moriarty JP, Concato J. The effect of antibiotic therapy for patients infected with Helicobacter pylori who have chronic urticaria. J Am Acad Dermatol.
Fukuda S, Shimoyama T, Umegaki N, Mikami T, Nakano H, Munakata A. Effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication in the treatment of Japanese patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria. J Gastroenterol.
Gaig P, García-Ortega P, Enrique E, Papo M, Quer JC, Richard C. Efficacy of the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with chronic urticaria. A placebo-controlled double blind study. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr).
Gala Ortiz G, Cuevas Agustín M, Erias Martínez P, de la Hoz Caballer B, Fernández Ordoñez R, Hinojosa Macías M, Boixeda D, Losada Cosmes E. Chronic urticaria and Helicobacter pylori. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol.
Hellmig S, Troch K, Ott SJ, Schwarz T, Fölsch UR. Role of Helicobacter pylori Infection in the treatment and outcome of chronic urticaria. Helicobacter.
Hook-Nikanne J, Varjonen E, Harvima RJ, Kosunen TU. Is Helicobacter pylori infection associated with chronic urticaria?. Acta Derm Venereol.
Bruscky DM, da Rocha LA, Costa AJ. Recurrence of chronic urticaria caused by reinfection by Helicobacter pylori. Rev Paul Pediatr.
Campanati A, Gesuita R, Giannoni M, Piraccini F, Sandroni L, Martina E, Conocchiari L, Bendia E, Di Sario A, Offidani A. Role of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and Helicobacter pylori infection in chronic spontaneous urticaria: a prospective analysis. Acta Derm Venereol.
Akashi R, Ishiguro N, Shimizu S, Kawashima M. Clinical study of the relationship between Helicobacter pylori and chronic urticaria and prurigo chronica multiformis: effectiveness of eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori. J Dermatol.
Di Campli C, Gasbarrini A, Nucera E, Franceschi F, Ojetti V, Sanz Torre E, Schiavino D, Pola P, Patriarca G, Gasbarrini G. Beneficial effects of Helicobacter pylori eradication on idiopathic chronic urticaria. Dig Dis Sci.
Daudén E, Jiménez-Alonso I, García-Díez A. Helicobacter pylori and idiopathic chronic urticaria. Int J Dermatol.
Chiu YC, Tai WC, Chuah SK, Hsu PI, Wu DC, Wu KL, Huang CC, Ho JC, Ring J, Chen WC. The Clinical Correlations of Helicobacter pylori Virulence Factors and Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria. Gastroenterol Res Pract.
Ersoy O, Ersoy R, Yayar O, Demirci H, Tatlican S. H pylori infection in patients with Behcet’s disease. World J Gastroenterol.
Sentürk O, Ozgür O, Hülagü OS, Cantürk NZ, Celebi A, Karakaya AT. Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on deep vein thrombosis seen in patients with Behçet’s disease. East Afr Med J.
Avci O, Ellidokuz E, Simşek I, Büyükgebiz B, Güneş AT. Helicobacter pylori and Behçet’s disease. Dermatology.
Apan TZ, Gürsel R, Dolgun A. Increased seropositivity of Helicobacter pylori cytotoxin-associated gene-A in Behçet’s disease. Clin Rheumatol.
Abdel Hafez HZ, Mahran AM, Hofny EM, Attallah DA, Sayed DS, Rashed H. Alopecia areata is not associated with Helicobacter pylori. Indian J Dermatol.
Abdel-Hafez HZ, Mahran AM, Hofny ER, Attallah DA, Sayed DS, Rashed HA. Is Helicobacter pylori infection associated with alopecia areata?. J Cosmet Dermatol.
Rigopoulos D, Katsambas A, Karalexis A, Papatheodorou G, Rokkas T. No increased prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in patients with alopecia areata. J Am Acad Dermatol.
Campuzano-Maya G. Cure of alopecia areata after eradication of Helicobacter pylori: a new association?. World J Gastroenterol.
Liebman H. Other immune thrombocytopenias. Semin Hematol.
Emilia G, Longo G, Luppi M, Gandini G, Morselli M, Ferrara L, Amarri S, Cagossi K, Torelli G. Helicobacter pylori eradication can induce platelet recovery in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Blood.
Franceschi F, Satta MA, Mentella MC, Penland R, Candelli M, Grillo RL, Leo D, Fini L, Nista EC, Cazzato IA. Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Helicobacter.
Gasbarrini A, Franceschi F, Tartaglione R, Landolfi R, Pola P, Gasbarrini G. Regression of autoimmune thrombocytopenia after eradication of Helicobacter pylori. Lancet.
Stasi R, Rossi Z, Stipa E, Amadori S, Newland AC, Provan D. Helicobacter pylori eradication in the management of patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Am J Med.
Suzuki T, Matsushima M, Masui A, Watanabe K, Takagi A, Ogawa Y, Shirai T, Mine T. Effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication in patients with chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura-a randomized controlled trial. Am J Gastroenterol.
Gasbarrini A, Franceschi F. Does H. Pylori infection play a role in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and in other autoimmune diseases?. Am J Gastroenterol.
Franceschi F, Christodoulides N, Kroll MH, Genta RM. Helicobacter pylori and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Ann Intern Med.
Huber MR, Kumar S, Tefferi A. Treatment advances in adult immune thrombocytopenic purpura. Ann Hematol.
Takahashi T, Yujiri T, Shinohara K, Inoue Y, Sato Y, Fujii Y, Okubo M, Zaitsu Y, Ariyoshi K, Nakamura Y. Molecular mimicry by Helicobacter pylori CagA protein may be involved in the pathogenesis of H. pylori-associated chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Br J Haematol.
Negrini R, Savio A, Poiesi C, Appelmelk BJ, Buffoli F, Paterlini A, Cesari P, Graffeo M, Vaira D, Franzin G. Antigenic mimicry between Helicobacter pylori and gastric mucosa in the pathogenesis of body atrophic gastritis. Gastroenterology.
Conway DS, Lip GY. Helicobacter pylori as the cause of coronary artery restenosis following angioplasty--is the way to a man’s heart disease through his stomach?. Dig Liver Dis.
Stone AF, Mendall MA. Helicobacter pylori is an aetiological factor for ischaemic heart disease: the case in favour. Dig Liver Dis.
Papamichael KX, Papaioannou G, Karga H, Roussos A, Mantzaris GJ. Helicobacter pylori infection and endocrine disorders: is there a link?. World J Gastroenterol.
Bassi V, Marino G, Iengo A, Fattoruso O, Santinelli C. Autoimmune thyroid diseases and Helicobacter pylori: the correlation is present only in Graves’s disease. World J Gastroenterol.
Bassi V, Santinelli C, Iengo A, Romano C. Identification of a correlation between Helicobacter pylori infection and Graves’ disease. Helicobacter.
Tomasi PA, Dore MP, Fanciulli G, Sanciu F, Realdi G, Delitala G. Is there anything to the reported association between Helicobacter pylori infection and autoimmune thyroiditis?. Dig Dis Sci.
de Luis DA, Varela C, de La Calle H, Cantón R, de Argila CM, San Roman AL, Boixeda D. Helicobacter pylori infection is markedly increased in patients with autoimmune atrophic thyroiditis. J Clin Gastroenterol.
Figura N, Di Cairano G, Lorè F, Guarino E, Gragnoli A, Cataldo D, Giannace R, Vaira D, Bianciardi L, Kristodhullu S. The infection by Helicobacter pylori strains expressing CagA is highly prevalent in women with autoimmune thyroid disorders. J Physiol Pharmacol.
Ko GH, Park HB, Shin MK, Park CK, Lee JH, Youn HS, Cho MJ, Lee WK, Rhee KH. Monoclonal antibodies against Helicobacter pylori cross-react with human tissue. Helicobacter.
Tomb JF, White O, Kerlavage AR, Clayton RA, Sutton GG, Fleischmann RD, Ketchum KA, Klenk HP, Gill S, Dougherty BA. The complete genome sequence of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Nature.
Bertalot G, Montresor G, Tampieri M, Spasiano A, Pedroni M, Milanesi B, Favret M, Manca N, Negrini R. Decrease in thyroid autoantibodies after eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf).
Larizza D, Calcaterra V, Martinetti M, Negrini R, De Silvestri A, Cisternino M, Iannone AM, Solcia E. Helicobacter pylori infection and autoimmune thyroid disease in young patients: the disadvantage of carrying the human leukocyte antigen-DRB1*0301 allele. J Clin Endocrinol Metab.
Abenavoli L, Arena V, Giancotti F, Vecchio FM, Abenavoli S. Celiac disease, primary biliary cirrhosis and helicobacter pylori infection: one link for three diseases. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol.
Muratori L, Bogdanos DP, Muratori P, Lenzi M, Granito A, Ma Y, Mieli-Vergani G, Bianchi FB, Vergani D. Susceptibility to thyroid disorders in hepatitis C. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol.
Vergani D, Bogdanos DP, Baum H. Unusual suspects in primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology.
Bogdanos DP, Vergani D. Origin of cross-reactive autoimmunity in primary biliary cirrhosis. Liver Int.
Bogdanos DP, Lenzi M, Okamoto M, Rigopoulou EI, Muratori P, Ma Y, Muratori L, Tsantoulas D, Mieli-Vergani G, Bianchi FB. Multiple viral/self immunological cross-reactivity in liver kidney microsomal antibody positive hepatitis C virus infected patients is associated with the possession of HLA B51. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2004;17:83-92.
Gregorio GV, Choudhuri K, Ma Y, Pensati P, Iorio R, Grant P, Garson J, Bogdanos DP, Vegnente A, Mieli-Vergani G. Mimicry between the hepatitis C virus polyprotein and antigenic targets of nuclear and smooth muscle antibodies in chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Clin Exp Immunol.
Deretzi G, Kountouras J, Polyzos SA, Zavos C, Giartza-Taxidou E, Gavalas E, Tsiptsios I. Gastrointestinal immune system and brain dialogue implicated in neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Curr Mol Med.
Long Y, Gao C, Qiu W, Hu X, Shu Y, Peng F, Lu Z. Helicobacter pylori infection in Neuromyelitis Optica and Multiple Sclerosis. Neuroimmunomodulation.
Yoshimura S, Isobe N, Matsushita T, Yonekawa T, Masaki K, Sato S, Kawano Y, Kira J. Distinct genetic and infectious profiles in Japanese neuromyelitis optica patients according to anti-aquaporin 4 antibody status. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry.
Gavalas E, Kountouras J, Deretzi G, Boziki M, Grigoriadis N, Zavos C, Venizelos I. Helicobacter pylori and multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol.
:187-189; author reply 190.[PubMed] [DOI]
Kountouras J, Gavalas E, Deretzi G, Boziki M, Zavos C, Chatzopoulos D, Katsinelos P, Giartza-Taxidou E, Grigoriadis N, Venizelos I. Helicobacter pylori with or without its neutrophil-activating protein may be the common denominator associated with multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica. Mult Scler.
:376-377; author reply 378-379.[PubMed] [DOI]
Li W, Minohara M, Piao H, Matsushita T, Masaki K, Matsuoka T, Isobe N, Su JJ, Ohyagi Y, Kira J. Association of anti-Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein antibody response with anti-aquaporin-4 autoimmunity in Japanese patients with multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica. Mult Scler.
Mohebi N, Mamarabadi M, Moghaddasi M. Relation of helicobacter pylori infection and multiple sclerosis in Iranian patients. Neurol Int.
Wender M. [Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among patients with multiple sclerosis]. Neurol Neurochir Pol.
Li W, Minohara M, Su JJ, Matsuoka T, Osoegawa M, Ishizu T, Kira J. Helicobacter pylori infection is a potential protective factor against conventional multiple sclerosis in the Japanese population. J Neuroimmunol.
Lin TT, Yeh CT, Wu CS, Liaw YF. Detection and partial sequence analysis of Helicobacter pylori DNA in the bile samples. Dig Dis Sci.
Tanaka A, Prindiville TP, Gish R, Solnick JV, Coppel RL, Keeffe EB, Ansari A, Gershwin ME. Are infectious agents involved in primary biliary cirrhosis? A PCR approach. J Hepatol.
Nilsson HO, Taneera J, Castedal M, Glatz E, Olsson R, Wadström T. Identification of Helicobacter pylori and other Helicobacter species by PCR, hybridization, and partial DNA sequencing in human liver samples from patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis or primary biliary cirrhosis. J Clin Microbiol.
Bogdanos DP, Baum H, Grasso A, Okamoto M, Butler P, Ma Y, Rigopoulou E, Montalto P, Davies ET, Burroughs AK. Microbial mimics are major targets of crossreactivity with human pyruvate dehydrogenase in primary biliary cirrhosis. J Hepatol.
Bogdanos DP, Baum H, Gunsar F, Arioli D, Polymeros D, Ma Y, Burroughs AK, Vergani D. Extensive homology between the major immunodominant mitochondrial antigen in primary biliary cirrhosis and Helicobacter pylori does not lead to immunological cross-reactivity. Scand J Gastroenterol.
Koutsoumpas A, Mytilinaiou M, Polymeros D, Dalekos GN, Bogdanos DP. Anti-Helicobacter pylori antibody responses specific for VacA do not trigger primary biliary cirrhosis-specific antimitochondrial antibodies. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol.
Krasinskas AM, Yao Y, Randhawa P, Dore MP, Sepulveda AR. Helicobacter pylori may play a contributory role in the pathogenesis of primary sclerosing cholangitis. Dig Dis Sci.
Casswall TH, Németh A, Nilsson I, Wadström T, Nilsson HO. Helicobacter species DNA in liver and gastric tissues in children and adolescents with chronic liver disease. Scand J Gastroenterol.
Eksteen B, Grant AJ, Miles A, Curbishley SM, Lalor PF, Hübscher SG, Briskin M, Salmon M, Adams DH. Hepatic endothelial CCL25 mediates the recruitment of CCR9+ gut-homing lymphocytes to the liver in primary sclerosing cholangitis. J Exp Med.
Trivedi PJ, Adams DH. Mucosal immunity in liver autoimmunity: a comprehensive review. J Autoimmun.
Nilsson I, Kornilovs’ka I, Lindgren S, Ljungh A, Wadström T. Increased prevalence of seropositivity for non-gastric Helicobacter species in patients with autoimmune liver disease. J Med Microbiol.
Dzierzanowska-Fangrat K, Nilsson I, Wozniak M, Jozwiak P, Rozynek E, Woynarowski M, Socha J, Ljungh A, Wadström T. Lack of an association between Helicobacter infection and autoimmune hepatitis in children. Pol J Microbiol.
Durazzo M, Pellicano R, Premoli A, Berrutti M, Leone N, Ponzetto A, Rizzetto M. Helicobacter pylori seroprevalence in patients with autoimmune hepatitis. Dig Dis Sci.
El-Matary W, Dalzell AM, Ashworth M. Helicobacter pylori and autoimmune hepatitis. Eur J Pediatr.
Franceschi F, Brisinda D, Buccelletti F, Ruggieri MP, Gasbarrini A, Sorbo A, Marsiliani D, Venuti A, Fenici P, Gasbarrini G. Prevalence of virulent Helicobacter pylori strains in patients affected by idiopathic dysrhythmias. Intern Emerg Med.
Fonseca FM, Queiroz DM, Rocha AM, Prata A, Crema E, Rodrigues Junior V, Ramirez LE, Oliveira AG. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in chagasic and nonchagasic patients from the same geographical region of Brazil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop.
Selmi C, Balkwill DL, Invernizzi P, Ansari AA, Coppel RL, Podda M, Leung PS, Kenny TP, Van De Water J, Nantz MH. Patients with primary biliary cirrhosis react against a ubiquitous xenobiotic-metabolizing bacterium. Hepatology.
Bogdanos DP, Baum H, Okamoto M, Montalto P, Sharma UC, Rigopoulou EI, Vlachogiannakos J, Ma Y, Burroughs AK, Vergani D. Primary biliary cirrhosis is characterized by IgG3 antibodies cross-reactive with the major mitochondrial autoepitope and its Lactobacillus mimic. Hepatology.
Bogdanos D, Pusl T, Rust C, Vergani D, Beuers U. Primary biliary cirrhosis following Lactobacillus vaccination for recurrent vaginitis. J Hepatol.
Smyk DS, Bogdanos DP, Kriese S, Billinis C, Burroughs AK, Rigopoulou EI. Urinary tract infection as a risk factor for autoimmune liver disease: from bench to bedside. Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol.
Bogdanos DP, Baum H, Vergani D, Burroughs AK. The role of E. coli infection in the pathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis. Dis Markers.