Systematic Reviews
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2022.
World J Methodol. Nov 20, 2022; 12(6): 476-487
Published online Nov 20, 2022. doi: 10.5662/wjm.v12.i6.476
Table 1 Synopsis of reviewed studies on coronavirus disease 2019 thromboembolisms necessitating surgical intervention
Study design
No. of patients
Age (yr)
Sex: Males, females (%)
Thromboembolic complication(s)
Surgical intervention(s)
Adekiigbe et al[43], 2020NY, United StatesCase report147MaleDMYesCutaneous vasculitic lesions and gangrene of all toes, bilateral DVTBilateral transmetatarsal amputations of all 10 toesDischarged home
Ali Nasir et al[20], 2021PakistanCase report164MaleT2DM, HTNNoAcute LLIAbove knee amputationDischarged home
Balanescu et al[33], 2021MI, United StatesCase series420-77 (median 52)Male (50)Obesity (50%)UnknownPEMechanical thrombectomy (100%)Discharged home (100%)
Bilge et al[21], 2021TurkeyCase report173MaleHTNNoUpper extremity arterial thromboembolismLeft upper extremity arteriotomy and arterial thrombectomy. Repeat thrombectomy 12 h later. Amputation at the level of the forearm 13 d later. Stump revision with amputation 22 d laterDischarged home
Bozzani et al[22], 2020ItalyCase series671 (49-83)4 males (66)3 PAD, other unknownUnknownAcute LLIUrgent revascularization procedures (embolectomy in 3 cases, and hybrid open/endo procedures in other 3)1 rethrombosed day 5, died 30 d later of MOF. 1 rethrombosed day 5, repeat embolectomy, above knee amputation. 4 discharged home. 23 discharged home in good condition
Cheung et al[55], 2020NY, United StatesCase report155MaleHTNNoSMA thrombosis, bowel ischemiaEmergency exploratory laparotomy and SMA thrombectomy, necrotic small bowel resectionDischarged home
Dao et al[56], 2021CA, United StatesCase report161MaleHTNYesFree floating descending aortic thrombusPercutaneous vacuum assisted aortic thrombectomyDischarged home
Dinoto et al[23], 2021ItalyCase report178MaleDM, obesity, prior remote endovascular surgery for large popliteal aneurysmNoAcute LLI. Thrombosis of left femoral-popliteal stentMechanical thrombectomyDischarged home
Galastri et al[34], 2020BrazilCase report157MaleDM, obesity, HTNYesMassive PECatheter directed thrombolysisDischarged home
Gutierrez et al[39], 2022NY, United StatesCase report153MaleHTN, remote smoking, DMYesDue to phlegmasia cerulean dolensFasciotomy and mechanical thrombectomyDischarged PAD 70
Hwabejire et al[19], 2021MA, United StatesCase series2058 ± 713 males (65)Obesity (60%)85% (17) received preoperative anticoagulationAcute bowel ischemiaLaparotomy with resection of bowel50% overall mortality rate: (1) 100% mortality in patients ≥ 65 yr; (2) 33% mortality < 65 yr; and (3) 40% (8) developed
Jamshidi et al[40], 2021CA, United StatesCase report151MaleTricuspid atresia status post Fontan and extracardiac ShuntYesBilateral lower extremity DVT, phlegmasia cerulea dolens of the left lower extremityCatheter directed mechanical thrombectomy (PAD 13), left below knee amputation (PAD 41)Discharged to rehabilitation facility PAD 50
Khanna et al[32], 2021PA, United StatesCase report167FemaleHTNNoAcute stroke from bilateral anterior circulation large vessel occlusionBilateral simultaneous mechanical thrombectomyFull neurologic recovery
Nascimbene et al[35], 2021TX, United StatesCase report144MalePatent foramen ovale, T2DM, HTN, dyslipidemia, obesityNoMassive PE with a large right atrial thrombusPercutaneous right and left atrium embolectomyDischarged home
Naudin et al[24], 2021FranceCase report156MaleT2DM, HTN, obesityNoAcute aortoiliac thrombus and LLIAortoiliac and lower limb artery mechanical thrombectomy and left lower limb fasciotomies, subsequent left below knee amputationExtubated but still in ICU 6 wk post operatively
Szeles et al[25], 2021NY, United StatesCase report167MaleDM, hyperlipidemia, HTNNoAcute LLI and aortic mural thrombosisEmergency bilateral aortoliliac and distal embelectomies, followed by transmetatarsal amputation of the right foot and below knee amputation of the left limb
Topcu et al[26], 2021TurkeySingle center cross sectional study362 (58-70)3 (100)1 ex-smokerYes (100%)Acute LLI3 emergency surgical thrombectomy1 minor amputation (33.3%); 1 death (33.3%); 1 bilateral major amputation (33.3%)
Traina et al[18], 2021ItalyCase report180MaleCVD, prior endovascular aortic repair in 2019 for abdominal aneurysm repair, and dyslipidemiaNoBowel ischemia with aorto-enteric fistula formationLaparotomy with resection of necrotic small bowel (occult COVID-19, diagnosed on histologic examination of resected small bowel)Discharged home
Vyas et al[36], 2020NY, United StatesCase report132MaleNoneNoLarge saddle pulmonary embolusBilateral percutaneous pulmonary artery mechanical thrombectomyDischarged home 3 d post procedure
Yang et al[17], 2021GermanyCohort study20 69 (62-72)15 males (75)65% (13) obese25% (5)Colonic ischemia12 (60%) underwent (sub)total colectomy, 7 (35%) right hemicolectomy, 1 (5%) ileocecal resection9 (45%) surgical complications, 10 (50%) required revision surgery, 9 (45%) mortality
Zivkovic et al[57], 2021SerbiaCase report144FemaleNoneNoAscending aorta floating thrombus with acute right arm ischemiaSurgical thrombus extraction through open sternotomy and bypass surgeryDischarged POD 6
Madani et al[27], 2021CA, United StatesCases report140MaleHTN, T2DMYesAcute LLIRight lower extremity above knee amputationDischarged 41 d after admission