©The Author(s) 2022. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
Global prevalence of occult hepatitis C virus: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Donatien Serge Mbaga, Sebastien Kenmoe, Jacky Njiki Bikoï, Guy Roussel Takuissu, Marie Amougou-Atsama, Etienne Atenguena Okobalemba, Jean Thierry Ebogo-Belobo, Arnol Bowo-Ngandji, Martin Gael Oyono, Jeannette Nina Magoudjou-Pekam, Ginette Irma Kame-Ngasse, Alex Durand Nka, Alfloditte Flore Feudjio, Cromwel Zemnou-Tepap, Elie Adamou Velhima, Juliette Laure Ndzie Ondigui, Rachel Audrey Nayang-Mundo, Sabine Aimee Touangnou-Chamda, Yrene Kamtchueng Takeu, Jean Bosco Taya-Fokou, Chris Andre Mbongue Mikangue, Raoul Kenfack-Momo, Cyprien Kengne-Ndé, Carole Stephanie Sake, Seraphine Nkie Esemu, Richard Njouom, Lucy Ndip, Sara Honorine Riwom Essama
Donatien Serge Mbaga, Jacky Njiki Bikoï, Arnol Bowo-Ngandji, Juliette Laure Ndzie Ondigui, Sabine Aimee Touangnou-Chamda, Jean Bosco Taya-Fokou, Chris Andre Mbongue Mikangue, Carole Stephanie Sake, Sara Honorine Riwom Essama, Department of Microbiology, The University of Yaounde I, Yaounde 00237, Cameroon
Sebastien Kenmoe, Seraphine Nkie Esemu, Lucy Ndip, Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Buea, Buea 00237, Cameroon
Sebastien Kenmoe, Richard Njouom, Department of Virology, Centre Pasteur of Cameroon, Yaounde 00237, Cameroon
Guy Roussel Takuissu, Centre of Research in Food, Food Security and Nutrition, Institute of Medical Research and Medicinal Plants Studies, Yaounde 00237, Cameroon
Marie Amougou-Atsama, Centre de Recherche sur les Maladies Emergentes et Re-Emergentes, Institute of Medical Research and Medicinal Plants Studies, Yaounde 00237, Cameroon
Etienne Atenguena Okobalemba, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Science, The University of Yaounde I, Yaounde 00237, Cameroon
Jean Thierry Ebogo-Belobo, Ginette Irma Kame-Ngasse, Elie Adamou Velhima, Yrene Kamtchueng Takeu, Medical Research Centre, Institute of Medical Research and Medicinal Plants Studies, Yaounde 00237, Cameroon
Martin Gael Oyono, Laboratory of Parasitology and Ecology, The University of Yaounde I, Yaounde 00237, Cameroon
Jeannette Nina Magoudjou-Pekam, Alfloditte Flore Feudjio, Cromwel Zemnou-Tepap, Raoul Kenfack-Momo, Department of Biochemistry, The University of Yaounde I, Yaounde 00237, Cameroon
Alex Durand Nka, Virology Laboratory, Chantal Biya International Reference Center for Research on HIV/AIDS Prevention and Management, Yaounde 00237, Cameroon
Rachel Audrey Nayang-Mundo, Department of Microbiology, Protestant University of Central Africa, Yaounde 00237, Cameroon
Cyprien Kengne-Ndé, Epidemiological Surveillance, Evaluation and Research Unit, National Aids Control Committee, Douala 00237, Cameroon
Author contributions: Kenmoe S, Mbaga DS, and Riwom Essama SH were responsible for conception and design of the study as well as project administration; Mbaga DS, Kenmoe S, Njiki Bikoï J, Takuissu GR, Amougou Atsama M, Atenguena Okobalemba E, Ebogo-Belobo JT, Bowo-Ngandji A, Oyono MG, Magoudjou-Pekam JN, Kame-Ngasse GI, Nka AD, Feudjio AF, Zemnou-Tepap C, Velhima EA, Ndzie Ondigui JL, Nayang Mundo RA, Touangnou-Chamda SA, Kamtchueng Takeu Y, Taya-Fokou JB, Mbongue Mikangue CA, Kenfack-Momo R, and Kengne-Nde C were responsible for the data curation and interpretation of results; Kengne-Nde C and Kenmoe S were responsible for statistical analysis; Kenmoe S, Mbaga DS, and Riwom Essama SH were responsible for the project supervision; Kenmoe S and Mbaga DS wrote the original draft; All authors critically reviewed the first draft and approved the final version of the paper for submission, and have read and approved the final manuscript.
Supported by the European Union (EDCTP2 programme), No. TMA2019PF-2705.
Conflict-of-interest statement: The authors deny any conflict of interest.
PRISMA 2009 Checklist statement: The authors have read the PRISMA 2009 Checklist, and the manuscript was prepared and revised according to the PRISMA 2009 Checklist.
: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: https://creativecommons.org/Licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Corresponding author: Sebastien Kenmoe, PhD, Assistant Lecturer, Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Buea, Molyko to Buea town Rd, Buea 00237, Cameroon. email@example.com
Received: December 9, 2021
Peer-review started: December 9, 2021
First decision: February 15, 2022
Revised: March 3, 2022
Accepted: April 29, 2022
Article in press: April 29, 2022
Published online: May 20, 2022
In 2004, Castillo et al first described an unknown form of hepatitis C in humans that was different from the common chronic hepatitis C and was called occult hepatitis C Infection (OCI).
To eradicate hepatitis C virus (HCV) by 2030, as recommended by the WHO, it is crucial to determine the burden of OCI across the different regions of the world and in different population categories.
Highlight the global prevalence of seronegative and seropositive OCI according to population categories and regions of the world.
The authors searched PubMed, EMBASE, Global Index Medicus, and Web of Science databases from inception to May 6, 2021. Data were extracted independently by each author and the Hoy et al tool was used to assess the quality of included studies. Prevalence and 95% confidence intervals were determined using random-effect meta-analysis.
The authors included 85 articles out of the 3950 identified by the electronic search. The combined prevalence of seronegative OCI was 9.61% (95%CI: 6.84-12.73) and the prevalence of seropositive OCI was 13.39% (95%CI: 7.85-19.99). For variations by region, seropositive OCI prevalence was higher in Southern Europe, Northern America, and Northern Africa, and seronegative OCI prevalence was higher in Southern Europe and Northern Africa. For variations by population categories, seronegative OCI prevalence was higher in patients with abnormal liver function, hematological disorders, and kidney diseases.
The burden of OCI is high and greatly variable according to world regions and population categories.
Consideration should be given to the implementation of screening programs for OCI in high-risk populations such as patients with hematologic disorders, kidney disease, and those with abnormal liver function.